The anatomical characteristics and physical–mechanical properties of Neosinocalamus affinis culms from three locations in China were investigated. The fiber percentage, length, wall thickness, basic density, and mechanical properties all increased with culm height, while the fiber lumen diameter and volume shrinkage showed an inverse trend. The site had significant influence on the fiber percentage and physical–mechanical properties, while the influence on vascular bundle density and fiber morphology was not significant. Therefore, the influences of site on bamboo properties may be taken into consideration for constructional utilization, and those for pulping may be ignored.
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