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Tuesday, 1 November 2016
Surface modification of cellulose nanofibers with alkenyl succinic anhydride for high-density polyethylene reinforcement
Published Date April 2016, Vol.83:72–79,doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2015.11.009 Special Issue on Biocomposites Author
Akihiro Sato a,,
Daisuke Kabusaki b
Hiroaki Okumura b
Takeshi Nakatani b
Fumiaki Nakatsubo b
Hiroyuki Yano b
aNew Business Development Division, SEIKO PMC Corporation, Chiba 267-0056, Japan
bResearch Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 6111-0011, Japan
Available online 10 November 2015.
Hydrophobic cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by surface modification using alkenyl succinic anhydride (ASA). The hydrophobicity of CNFs was varied by changing the degree of substitution (DS) from 0 to 0.83. Modified CNFs were mixed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using a twin-screw extruder and the resulting composites were injection molded. The tensile properties initially improved with increasing DS up to ∼0.3–0.5, and then decreased with further substitution. The tensile strength and modulus of 10 wt.% HDPE/CNF composites containing 8.8 wt.% ASA (DS: 0.44) were 43.4 MPa and 1.97 GPa, respectively. These values were both almost 70% higher than those of composites containing unmodified CNF, and 100% and 86% higher, respectively, than those for pure HDPE. X-ray computed tomography measurements showed that CNFs modified with a DS of 0.44 were dispersed uniformly within the resin matrix, whilst unmodified CNFs and those modified with a DS of 0.77 agglomerated within the composites.