Blog List

Friday, 18 November 2016

Changes in aboveground and belowground properties during secondary natural succession of a cool-temperate forest in Japan

Published Date
Volume 21, Issue 4pp 170–177

Original Article
DOI: 10.1007/s10310-016-0526-5

Cite this article as: 
Hyodo, F., Haraguchi, T.F., Hirobe, M. et al. J For Res (2016) 21: 170. doi:10.1007/s10310-016-0526-5

  • Fujio Hyodo
  • Takashi F. Haraguchi
  • Muneto Hirobe
  • Ryunosuke Tateno

Forest development in temperate regions is considered to be a global carbon sink. Many studies have examined forest development after harvesting or fire from aboveground (e.g., biomass) or belowground (e.g., soil nutrient) perspectives. However, few studies have explored forest development from both perspectives simultaneously in cool-temperate forests in Japan. In this study, we examined changes over 105 years in both aboveground and belowground components during secondary natural succession. The aboveground biomass increased for 50 years and reached a plateau in a 105-year-old stand. The N mineralization rate increased during succession for 50 years, but showed a decline in the 105-year-old stand due to the decrease in the nitrification rate in late succession. The percent nitrification (i.e., relative contribution of nitrification to N mineralization) decreased significantly with increasing forest stand age. The N mineralization rates had significant relationships with N concentrations of the dominant tree foliage and litter fall and with the amount of litter fall N. Meanwhile, other belowground properties (i.e., soil pH, phenol concentration, soil microbial respiration, and litter mass loss) did not show any significant relationship with forest stand age. This may be because the soil at the study sites was heterogeneous and consisted of Cambisols and Andosols, the latter of which originally has high organic matter content, and thus may have buffered the effect of the aboveground development. These results indicate that belowground N dynamics are more closely associated with aboveground development than other belowground properties in these forests.


  1. Aber JD, Melillo JM, Nadelhoffer KJ, Pastor J, Boone RD (1991) Factors controlling nitrogen cycling and nitrogen saturation in northern temperate forest ecosystems. Ecol Appl 1:303–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson JPE, Domsch KH (1978) A physiological method for quantitative measurement of microbial biomass in soils. Soil Biol Biochem 10:215–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson TH, Domsch KH (1985) Determination of ecophysiological maintenance carbon requirements of soil-microorganisms in a dormant state. Biol Fertil Soils 1:81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson KJ, Allen AP, Gillooly JF, Brown JH (2006) Temperature-dependence of biomass accumulation rates during secondary succession. Ecol Lett 9:673–682CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Banning NC, Grant CD, Jones DL, Murphy DV (2008) Recovery of soil organic matter, organic matter turnover and nitrogen cycling in a post-mining forest rehabilitation chronosequence. Soil Biol Biochem 40:2021–2031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Batjes NH (1996) Total carbon and nitrogen in the soils of the world. Eur J Soil Sci 47:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bauhus J, Paré D, Côté L (1998) Effects of tree species, stand age and soil type on soil microbial biomass and its activity in a southern boreal forest. Soil Biol Biochem 30:1077–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bellassen V, Luyssaert S (2014) Carbon sequestration: managing forests in uncertain times. Nature 506:153–155CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bormann FH, Likens GE (1979) Pattern and process in a forested ecosystems. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Canadell JG, Le Quéré C, Raupach MR et al (2007) Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:18866–18870CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Chatterjee A, Ingram LJ, Vance GF, Stahl PD (2009) Soil processes and microbial community structures in 45- and 135-year-old lodgepole pine stands. Can J For Res-Rev Can De Rech For 39:2263–2271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cusack DF, Chadwick OA, Ladefoged T, Vitousek PM (2012) Long-term effects of agriculture on soil carbon pools and carbon chemistry along a Hawaiian environmental gradient. Biogeochemistry 112:229–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DeLuca TH, Nilsson MC, Zackrisson O (2002) Nitrogen mineralization and phenol accumulation along a fire chronosequence in northern Sweden. Oecologia 133:206–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dupouey JL, Dambrine E, Laffite JD, Moares C (2002) Irreversible impact of past land use on forest soils and biodiversity. Ecology 83:2978–2984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fahey TJ, Woodbury PB, Battles JJ et al (2010) Forest carbon storage: ecology, management, and policy. Front Ecol Environ 8:245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Foster D, Swanson F, Aber J et al (2003) The importance of land-use legacies to ecology and conservation. Bioscience 53:77–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gower ST, McMurtrie RE, Murty D (1996) Aboveground net primary production decline with stand age: potential causes. Trends Ecol Evol 11:378–382CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Haraguchi TF, Uchida M, Shibata Y, Tayasu I (2013) Contributions of detrital subsidies to aboveground spiders during secondary succession, revealed by radiocarbon and stable isotope signatures. Oecologia 171:935–944CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hirobe M, Tokuchi N, Iwatsubo G (1998) Spatial variability of soil nitrogen transformation patterns along a forest slope in a Cryptomeria japonica D. Don plantation. Eur J Soil Biol 34:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Idol TW, Pope PE, Ponder F (2003) N mineralization, nitrification, and N uptake across a 100-year chronosequence of upland hardwood forests. Forest Ecol Manag 176:509–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Imaya A, Yoshinaga S, Inagaki Y, Tanaka N, Ohta S (2010) Volcanic ash additions control soil carbon accumulation in brown forest soils in Japan. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 56:734–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Insam H, Domsch KH (1988) Relationship between soil organic carbon and microbial biomass on chronosequences of reclamation sites. Microb Ecol 15:177–188CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Insam H, Haselwandter K (1989) Metabolic quotient of the soil microflora in relation to plant succession. Oecologia 79:174–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Isobe K, Ohte N, Oda T et al (2015) Microbial regulation of nitrogen dynamics along the hillslope of a natural forest. Front Environ Sci 2. doi:10.3389/fenvs.2014.00063
  25. Karsten K, Denis AA, Klaus K, Martin HC (2007) Extraction and characterization of dissolved organic matter. Soil sampling and methods of analysis, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  26. Kawaguchi H, Yoda K (1986) Carbon-cycling changes during regeneration of a deciduous broadleaf forest after clear-cutting. I. Changes in organic matter and carbon storage. Jpn J Ecol 35:551–563Google Scholar
  27. Keeney DR, Nelson DW (1982) Nitrogen—inorganic forms. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds) Methods of soil analysis part 2 American Society of Agronomy. Madison, Wisconsin, pp 643–698Google Scholar
  28. Kira T, Shidei T (1967) Primary production and turnover of organic matter in different forest ecosystems of the Western Pacific. Jpn J Ecol 17:70–87Google Scholar
  29. Lal R (2005) Forest soils and carbon sequestration. Forest Ecol Manag 220:242–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. MacKenzie MD, DeLuca TH, Sala A (2004) Forest structure and organic horizon analysis along a fire chronosequence in the low elevation forests of western Montana. Forest Ecol Manag 203:331–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. MacKenzie MD, DeLuca TH, Sala A (2006) Fire exclusion and nitrogen mineralization in low elevation forests of western Montana. Soil Biol Biochem 38:952–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Morisada K, Ono K, Kanomata H (2004) Organic carbon stock in forest soils in Japan. Geoderma 119:21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nilsson MC, Wardle DA (2005) Understory vegetation as a forest ecosystem driver: evidence from the northern Swedish boreal forest. Front Ecol Environ 3:421–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ogawa H, Kira T (1977) Methods of estimating forest biomass. In: Shidei T, Kira T (eds) Primary productivity of Japanese forests JIBP Synthesis. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 15–25
  35. Ogino K (1977) A beech forest in Ashiu—its increment and net production. In: Shidei T, Kira T (eds), Primary productivity of Japanese forest. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 172–186
  36. Piatek KB, Allen HL (1999) Nitrogen mineralization in a pine plantation fifteen years after harvesting and site preparation. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63:990–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Robertson GP, Vitousek PM (1981) Nitrification potentials in primary and secondary succession. Ecology 62:376–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ryan MG, Binkley D, Fownes JH (1997) Age-related decline in forest productivity: pattern and process. Adv Ecol Res 27: 213–262
  39. Salamanca EF, Kaneko N, Katagiri S, Nagayama Y (1998) Nutrient dynamics and lignocellulose degradation in decomposing Quercus serrata leaf litter. Ecol Res 13:199–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Smithwick EAH, Kashian DM, Ryan MG, Turner MG (2009) Long-term nitrogen storage and soil nitrogen availability in post-fire lodgepole pine ecosystems. Ecosystems 12:792–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Suzuki W (2002) Forest vegetation in and around Ogawa forest reserve in relation to human impact. In: Nakashizuka T, Matsumoto Y (eds) Diversity and interaction in a temperate forest community: Ogawa Forest Reserve of Japan. Springer, Tokyo, pp 27–41
  42. Tateno R, Hishi T, Takeda H (2004) Above- and belowground biomass and net primary production in a cool-temperate deciduous forest in relation to topographical changes in soil nitrogen. For Ecol Manag 193:297–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tateno R, Fukushima K, Fujimaki R, Shimamura T, Ohgi M, Arai H, Ohte N, Tokuchi N, Yoshioka T (2009) Biomass allocation and nitrogen limitation in a Cryptomeria japonica plantation chronosequence. J For Res 14:276–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Thorne JF, Hamburg SP (1985) Nitrification potentials of an old-field chronosequence in Campton, New Hampshire. Ecology 66:1333–1338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Trap J, Bureau F, Vinceslas-Akpa M, Chevalier R, Aubert M (2009) Changes in soil N mineralization and nitrification pathways along a mixed forest chronosequence. For Ecol Manag 258:1284–1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Vitousek P, Matson P, Cleve K (1989) Nitrogen availability and nitrification during succession: primary, secondary, and old-field seres. Plant Soil 115:229–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wardle DA (1993) Changes in the microbial biomass and metabolic quotient during leaf-litter succession in some New Zealand forest and scrubland ecosystems. Funct Ecol 7:346–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wardle DA (2002) Communities and ecosystems: Linking the aboveground and belowground components. Princeton University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  49. Wardle DA, Ghani A (1995) A critique of the microbial metabolic quotient (qCO(2)) as a bioindicator of disturbance and ecosystem development. Soil Biol Biochem 27:1601–1610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. White LL, Zak DR, Barnes BV (2004) Biomass accumulation and soil nitrogen availability in an 87-year-old Populus grandidentata chronosequence. For Ecol Manag 191:121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Whittaker RH, Bormann FH, Likens GE, Siccama TG (1974) The Hubbard Brook ecosystem study: forest biomass and production. Ecol Monogr 44:233–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yan E-R, Wang X-H, Guo M, Zhong Q, Zhou W, Li Y-F (2009) Temporal patterns of net soil N mineralization and nitrification through secondary succession in the subtropical forests of eastern China. Plant Soil 320:181–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yoshinaga S, Takahashi M, Aizawa S (2002) Landforms and soil characteristics in Ogawa forest reserve. In: Nakashizuka T, Matsumoto Y (eds) Diversity and interaction in a temperate forest community, ecological studies. Springer, Japan, pp 19–26

For further details log on website :

No comments:

Post a Comment

Mangrove Forest Management & Restoration

The Sabah Forestry Department has conserved most if not all Mangrove Forests under Class V for marine life conservation and as a natural me...