Thursday, 1 December 2016

Synopsis of the genus Stenonabis (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nabidae) from the Korean Peninsula, with a key to the Far East species

Published Date
1 December 2016, Vol.9(4):455460, doi:10.1016/j.japb.2016.06.007
Open Access, Creative Commons license, Funding information

Original article 

Author 
  • Hodan Lee
  • Sunghoon Jung ,
  • Laboratory of Systematic Entomology, Department of Applied Biology, College of Agriculture and life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea

Abstract

The genus Stenonabis Reuter (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nabidae: Nabinae) from Korea is reviewed. Stenonabis uhleri Miyamoto, 1964 is reported from the Korean Peninsula for the first time. Morphological information such as descriptions and diagnoses for the Korean species with male and female genital illustrations are provided, and some biological information is also given. Additionally, we provide a key to the Stenonabis species in the Far East.

Keywords

  • biological control agent
  • Korean Peninsula
  • Nabidae
  • new record
  • Stenonabis

  • Introduction

    The family Nabidae, or commonly called, damsel bugs is a small family of true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), containing 31 genera and ∼400 species in the world (Henry 2009). This family is distributed almost in all faunal regions. Most species are predators on various stages of insects (e.g. aphids, leafhoppers and lepidopteran eggs and young caterpillars). Thus, they are potential biological control agents against insect pests, and commonly found on low herbaceous vegetation, shrubs and grasses (Lattin 1989). The genus Stenonabis Reuter, 1890, belonging to the subfamily Nabinae, is generally distributed in the Palaearctic region including the Korean Peninsula. In this genus, eight species have been recorded from the Palaearctic region, and only one species, Stenonabis yasumatsui Miyamoto and Lee has been recorded from the Korean Peninsula.

    This genus has several morphological and ecological characters telling it apart from other genera in the Nabini, which are as follows: body generally dirty yellow to dark brown; head, pronotum, and scutellum longitudinal dark brown line; legs are pale brown and apex of middle and hind femur dark ring; hemelytra usually short; Connexivum ventrally in the inner part and outer margin connected. Adult and nymph mainly wander on the ground surface.
    Materials and methods

    Descriptions and diagnoses of the genus and the species based on the Japanese specimens (Holotype) and Korean specimens are provided. All measurements in this paper are given in millimeters (mm). Terminology mainly follows Weirauch (2008) and Cornelis (2013). The newly recorded region of the species is indicated by an asterisk (*). Depository of the examined specimens is the Insect Collections in Laboratory of Systematic Entomology, Department of Applied Biology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University (CNU), Daejeon, Korea and the Kyushu University, Entomological Collection (KUEC), Fukuoka, Japan.

    Taxonomic accounts

    Genus Stenonabis Reuter, 1890 미니날개쐐기노린재속
    • Stenonabis Reuter, 1890: 294, 306. (as subgenus of Nabis; upgraded by Kerzhner, 1963a:6). Type species by original designation: Coriscus annulicornis Reuter, 1882, Tropical Africa.
    • Stomatacanthus Reuter, 1908:109. (as subgenus of Reduviolus; syn. Kerzhner, 1963b:457). Type species by original designation: Reduviolus vulcanus Reuter, 1908, New Guinea.

      Diagnosis Recognized by posterior lobe and collar of pronotum with distinct punctuation (Figures 2A–2B); basal part of paramere with prosess (Figure 3 and Figure 4A).

      Key to the species of genus Stenonabis in the Far East
    • 1.
      Posterior pronotal lobe 1.25 times longer than anterior pronotal lobe (except collar); apex of femur pale brown; hind femur as long as head and pronotum; hemelytral membrane always exceed apex of abdomenStenonabis uhleri.
    • Posterior pronotal lobe 1.2 times shorter than anterior pronotal lobe (except collar); apex of middle and hind femur with dark brown ring; hind femur distinctly longer than head and pronotum; hemelytral membrane usually not reaching apex of abdomen2
    • 2.
      Third antennal segment 1.2–1.3 times longer than second antennal segment; fourth antennal segment slightly longer than third antennal segment; in brachypterous, hemelytral membrane reaching to middle of fifth abdominal segment; connexivum pale brownStenonabis extremus
    • 3.
      Third antennal segment as long as second antennal segment; fourth antennal segment slightly shorter than third antennal segment; in brachypterous, hemelytral membrane reaching to middle of third abdominal segment; connexivum with dark brown patternStenonabis yasumatsui
    • Stenonabis uhleri Miyamoto, 1964 강변쐐기노린재 (신칭)
    • (Figure 1 and Figure 2A, 3A–3D, and 5A)
      Figure 1. Male adults of Stenonabis. A, dorsal view of Stenonabis uhleri; B, dorsal view of Stenonabis yasumatsui; C, ventral view of S. uhleri; D, ventral view of S. yasumatsui. <scale bar: 2.0 mm>
      Figure 2. Pronotum of Stenonabis. A, Stenonabis uhleri; B, Stenonabis yasumatsui. <scale bar: 0.5 mm>
      Figure 3. Genitalia of Stenonabis uhleri. A, left paramere of male; B, ditto, dorsal view of pygophore; C, ditto, aedeagus; D, vagina of female. <scale bars: A, D = 0.2 mm, B, C = 0.5 mm>
      Figure 4. Genitalia of Stenonabis yasumatsui. A, left paramere of male; B, ditto, dorsal view of pygophore; C, ditto, aedeagus; D, vagina of female. <scale bars: A, C, D = 0.2 mm, B = 1.0 mm>
      Figure 5. Holotype specimens of Stenonabis with labels. A, Stenonabis uhleri; B, Stenonabis yasumatsui.
    • Stenonabis uhleri Miyamoto, 1964: 276 (n. sp., descr.).
    • Stenonabis venosus Hsiao, 1964: 81.
    • Stenonabis uhleri Hsiao and Ren, 1981: 553 (descr.).
    • Stenonabis uhleri Kerzhner, 1981 141 (genital.).
    Diagnosis. Recognized by posterior lobe and collar of pronotum with distinct punctuation; pronotum yellowish brown with longitudinal dark brown line (Figure 2A).
    Description. Male: Body generally yellowish brown (Figures 1A–1B).
    Head. Head generally yellowish brown, ventral part of head somewhat darker than dorsal part, covered with abundant short silvery setae; area under antennae with long silvery setae; ocelli reddish brown, somewhat prominent; compound eyes dark brown, prominent; antennae generally yellowish brown, first and second antennal segments generally mottled yellowish brown, apex of second antennal segment dark brown, third and fourth segment somewhat dark brown, generally long and thin with short setae, proportion of each antennal segment as 0.74:1.00:1.22:1.28; rostrum generally yellowish pale brown, first rostral segment pale brown, second and third rostral segment yellowish brown, fourth rostral segment reddish brown, reaching to fore coxa, proportion of each rostral segment as 0.31:0.77:0.73:0.42.
    Thorax. Pronotum generally yellowish brown, covered with short pale yellowish setae; collar yellowish brown with longitudinal dark brown line with distinct punctuation; anterior pronotal lob yellowish brown with longitudinal dark brown line with somewhat uneven; posterior pronotal lob yellowish brown with longitudinal dark brown line with distinct punctuation; scutellum yellowish brown with longitudinal dark brown line, posterior apex of scutellum dark brown; hemelytra generally yellowish brown, membrane elongated, reaching to apex of abdomen; scent gland curved obliquely forward, apex comparatively thin; leg generally mottled yellowish brown, generally long and thin, apex of hind femur somewhat dark brown.
    Abdomen. Abdomen generally reddish brown, covered with abundant short yellowish brown setae; pygophore somewhat rectangular densely covered with setae on posterior part (Figure 3B); paramere strongly curved, two branched processes on basal part of paramere, process on apical part of paramere (Figure 3A); aedeagus membranous, tube shaped with about ten pieces of triangular sclerite (Figure 3C).
    Female. Similar as in males except for abdomen somewhat wider than male (see measurements). Genitalia: vagina asymmetrical with 2 parietal glands (Figure 3D).
    Measurements (in mm). Male (n = 3). Body: length 6.45–6.67; head: length 0.95–1.05, width 0.73–0.74, eye width 0.23–0.24, interocular width 0.27–0.29; rostrum: proportion of each segment (I) 0.31/0.29–0.33: (II) 0.77/0.76–0.77: (III) 0.73/0.70–0.76: (IV) 0.42/0.40–0.43; antennae: proportion of each segment (I) 0.74/0.71–0.77: (II) 1.00/0.98–1.02: (III) 1.22/1.19–1.26: (IV) 1.28/1.22–1.33; pronotum: length 1.39–1.45, width 1.55–1.60; scutellum: length 0.56–0.59, width 0.72–0.75; hemelytera: length 4.16–4.41; abdomen: length 3.48–3.60, width 1.57–1.63; legs: fore femur: length 1.74–1.89, width 0.33–0.36, middle femur: length 1.69–1.79, width 0.27–0.27, hind femur: length 2.31–2.43, width 0.19–0.21, fore tibia: length 1.44–1.58, width 0.10–0.11, middle tibia: length 1.52–1.60, width 0.10–0.10, hind tibia: length 2.52–2.61, width 0.08–0.09.
    Female (n = 2). Body: length 6.72–6.78; head: length 1.00–1.06, width 0.75–0.76, eye width 0.23–0.24, interocular width 0.28–0.30; rostrum: proportion of each segment (I) 0.30/0.29–0.30: (II) 0.84/0.79–0.88: (III) 0.75/0.74–0.75: (IV) 0.41/0.40–0.42; antenna: proportion of each segment (I) 0.77/0.74–0.79: (II) 1.07/1.04–1.10: (III) 1.17/1.13–1.20: (IV) 1.24/1.22–1.26; pronotum: length 1.41–1.43, width 1.60–1.70; scutellum: length 0.56–0.59, width 0.75–0.75; hemelytera: length 4.33–4.34; abdomen: length 2.86–2.96, width 1.76–1.80; and leg: fore femur: length 1.80–1.87, width 0.33–0.39, middle femur: length 1.70–1.80, width 0.22–0.24, hind femur: length 2.31–2.43, width 0.19–0.20, fore tibia: length 1.53–1.58, width 0.10–0.10, middle tibia: length 1.63–1.66, width 0.09–0.09, hind tibia: length 2.54–2.62, width 0.08–0.08.
    Specimens examined. [KUEC] Holotype: 1♂, Juso, Osaka, Japan (in label: 23–4–1915), 23 iv 1915; [CNU] 1♂, Pansu–ri, Cheongsan–myeon, Okcheon–gun, Chungcheongbuk–do, 2 vii 2014, light trap at riverside (H.D. Lee, leg.); 1♀, Wondang–ri, Jangnam–myeon, Yeoncheon–gun, Gyeonggi–do, 3 vii 2014, light trap at riverside (H.D. Lee, leg.); 1♂, Doan–dong, Seo–gu, Daejeon, 3 vii 2014, light trap at riverside (H.D. Lee, leg.); 1♂, Geumtan–dong, Yuseong–gu, Daejeon, 8 viii 2014, light trap at riverside (H.D. Lee, leg.); 1♂, Boksu–dong, Seo–gu, Daejeon, 10 ix 2014, light trap at riverside (J.G. Kim, leg.); 1♀, Pansu–ri, Cheongsan–myeon, Okcheon–gun, Chungcheongbuk–do, 2 vii 2014, light trap at riverside (H.D. Lee, leg.); 1♂, Geumtan–dong, Yuseong–gu, Daejeon, 12 viii 2014, light trap at riverside (H.D. Lee, leg.)
    Distribution. Korea*, China, Japan.
    Biology. This species was mainly found in moist areas near riversides (Figure 6).
    Figure 6. General habitat of Stenonabis uhleri.
    Diagnosis. Recognized by posterior lobe and collar of pronotum with distinct punctuation (Figure 2B), apex of hindfemur with dark brown ring.
    Description. Male: body generally yellowish gray, elongated; hemelytra comparatively short; abdomen exposed (Figures 1C–D).
    Head. Head generally yellowish gray, gray in ventral view, covered with short silky, white setae, two long setae on ventral side; ocelli reddish brown, somewhat prominent; compound eyes dark brown, prominent; antennae generally brown, first and second antennal segment with brown pattern, apex of second antennal segment dark brown, generally long and thin with short setae, proportion of each antennal segment as 1.37:1.98:1.99:1.56; rostrum generally yellowish pale brown, first rostral segment yellowish pale brown, basal part of second rostral segment dark brown, fourth rostral segment reddish brown, apex of rostrum reaching to between fore and middle coxa, proportion of each rostral segment as 0.40:1.22:1.12:0.44.
    Thorax. Pronotum generally yellowish gray, covered with pale yellow setae, anterior pronotal lob brown, somewhat uneven, posterior pronotal lob yellowish gray with dense indistinct punctuation; scutellum brown with one longitudinal dark brown line; hemelytra generally yellowish gray, membrane very short, apex of membrane reaching to third abdominal segment; scent gland curved obliquely forward, apex comparatively thick; legs generally yellowish gray, apex of middle and hind femur with dark brown ring, legs generally long and thin with short setae.
    Abdomen. Abdomen generally yellowish gray, covered with short pale yellow setae except for midline, intersection of connexivum with dark brown pattern; pygophore somewhat rectangular sparsely covered with setae on posterior part (Figure 4B); parameres symmetry, branched three part, apex strongly curved, C shaped (Figure 4A); aedeagus membranous, tube shaped, basal part of aedeagus with dense small spinules, middle part of aedeagus with dense larger spinules (Figure 4C).
    Female. Similar as in males except for abdomen somewhat longer and wider than male (See measurements). Genitalia vagina symmetrical with two parietal glands (Figure 4D).
    Measurements (in mm). Male (n = 3). Body: length 8.24–8.29; head: length 1.50–1.61, width 1.00–1.10, eye width 0.31–0.35, interocular width 0.40–0.44; rostrum: proportion of each segment (I) 0.40/0.39–0.41: (II) 1.22/1.20–1.23: (III) 1.12/1.09–1.14: (IV) 0.44/0.42–0.46; antennae: proportion of each segment (I) 1.37/1.35–1.38: (II) 1.98/1.97–1.98: (III) 1.99/1.98–2.00: (IV) 1.56/1.54–1.58; pronotum: length 1.68–1.70, width 1.66–1.68; scutellum: length 0.54–0.54, width 0.99–1.04; hemelytera: length 1.99–2.00; abdomen: length 4.52–4.55, width 2.10–2.21; legs: fore femur: length 2.97–2.99, width 0.53–0.54, middle femur: length 2.79–2.81, width 0.43–0.45, hind femur: length 3.93–3.98, width 0.32–0.33, fore tibia: length 2.57–2.60, width 0.15–0.17, middle tibia: length 2.70–2.72, width 0.15–0.17, hind tibia: length 4.39–4.41, width 0.10–0.13.
    Female (n = 2). Body: length 8.56–8.61; head: length 1.48–1.52, width 1.05–1.11, eye width 0.31–0.38, interocular width 0.41–0.49; rostrum: proportion of each segment (I) 0.45/0.44–0.46: (II) 1.31/1.28–1.33: (III) 1.29/1.25–1.33: (IV) 0.56/0.54–0.57; antenna: proportion of each segment (I) 1.21/1.20–1.22: (II) 1.97/1.96–1.97: (III) 1.98/1.97–1.99: (IV) 1.54/1.51–1.56; pronotum: length 1.66–1.70, width 1.75–1.85; scutellum: length 0.53–0.55, width 0.94–1.01; hemelytera: length 2.21–2.33; abdomen: length 4.78–4.81, width 2.62–2.70; leg: fore femur: length 2.97–3.00, width 0.59–0.61, middle femur: length 2.88–2.93, width 0.42–0.43, hind femur: length 4.05–4.10, width 0.30–0.33, fore tibia: length 2.73–2.81, width 0.17–0.19, middle tibia: length 2.66–2.70, width 0.15–0.17, hind tibia: length 4.45–4.53, width 0.15–0.17.
    Specimens examined. [KUEC] 1♂(Holotype): Pagye Temple, Gyeongsangbuk–do, South Korea (in label: 60.10.24, C. Lee), 24 X 1960 (C.E. Lee, leg.); [CNU] 1♂, Dongchon–ri, Hwacheon–eup, Hwacheon–gun, Gangwon–do, 16 vii 2015 (H.D. Lee, leg.); 3♂,3♀, Haoan–ri, Hongcheon–eup, Hongcheon–gun, Gangwon–do, 17.vii.2015 (H.D. Lee, leg.); 1♀, Myeongdal–ri, Seojong–myeon, Yangpyeong–gun, Gyeonggi–do, 4 viii 2015 (H.D. Lee, leg.); 2♂,1♀, Yul–ri, Yongsan–myeon, Yeongdong–gun, Chungcheongbuk–do, 19 vi 2015 (H.D. Lee, leg.); 1♀, Wolpyeong–dong, Seo–gu, Daejeon, 5 vii 2015 (H.D. Lee, leg.).
    Distribution. Korea, Russia.

    Acknowledgments

    This research was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR201501203) and supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (NRF–2014R1A1A1005338).

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    • Peer review under responsibility of National Science Museum of Korea (NSMK) and Korea National Arboretum (KNA).
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      Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 42 821 5767; fax: +82 42 823 8679.
    Copyright © 2016, National Science Museum of Korea (NSMK) and Korea National Arboretum (KNA). Production and hosting by Elsevier.
    Open access funded by Korean Biodiversity Information Facility (KBIF) in National Science Museum of Korea and Korea

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