Conservation of forest ecosystems in majority of Southeast Asia countries faces several major challenges. Coverage of protected areas is not adequate often exist as islands, surrounded by densely populated areas with incompatible land uses. Besides that a successful long-term conservation of forestry species even in their own natural ecosystems requires a good understanding of the ecological interactions between species, and the challenges begin with the surveying and inventorying of existing resources. Thus comparative studies at species level and intraspecific levels of reproductive output, mating patterns and regeneration processes involving trees in large contiguous forests and small fragments will pose challenges to conserve forest ecosystems. Additional research aiming at the development of ex situ conservation techniques, including slow growth storage and cryopreservation, and at the understanding of the biological mechanisms determining recalcitrance of species conserved is also required.
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