Sunday, 27 November 2016

PRICING STRATEGY FOR QUASI-PUBLIC FOREST TOURISM PARK Case Study in Gunung Pancar Forest Tourism Park, Bogor Indonesia


Ricky Avenzora, Tutut Sunarminto, Priyono E. Pratiekto, Ju Hyoung Lee


The dynamic of 3-parties conflict of interests (investor, local people and government) in having actual income from the nature tourism park business in Indonesia became worse since a “very progressive” Government Regulation on Forestry Related Services Tariff (so called PP 12/2014) was issued. On one hand, everybody agrees to improve the 17 years old tariff regulation of PP 59/1998. On the other hand, the “unclear reason” of the new tariffs in PP 12/2014 has shocked many parties and created many difficulties while implemented. This paper studies visitors’ expenditures and their willingness to pay (WTP) for every recreation services scenario by using contingent valuation method (CVM) survey with open-ended eliciting questionnaire instrument. Regarding the characteristic of Gunung Pancar Forest Tourism Park (GPFTP) the method was used to justify a reasonable and eligible ticket pricing strategy at the GPFTP as a quasi-public recreation park. The survey has also specifically addressed the reasonable ticket-price that aligns with the financial assumption of investor's business plan and local people's economic activities. Results of the survey show that the continuum of visitors’ WTP is ranging from 3.4 times (as the response to scenario-1) up to 12.7 times (as the response to scenario-5) of the recent ticket price. The WTP of scenario-2, 3 and 4 are ranging from 4.7, 6.2 and 7.5 times, respectively. Furthermore, the results of Tobit Regression Analysis show that seven important variables are positively correlated, while six variables are negatively correlated with the WTP.


Tourism Park; contingent valuation method; willingness to pay; ticket pricing

Full Text:



Ajzen, I., & Driver, B.L. (1992). Contingent value measurement: On the nature and meaning of willingness to pay. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 1(4), 297-316
Andreoni, J. (1990). Impure altruism and donations to public goods: A theory of warm-glow giving. Economic Journal, 100 (401), 464–477.
Avenzora, R. (2008). Penilaian potensi dan obyek wisata: aspek dan indikator penilaian (Tourism objects and potentials evaluation: aspect and indicator of evaluation). In R. Avenzora (eds.), Ekoturisme: Teori dan praktek (pp. 241-278). Jakarta: Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi (BRR) NAD-Nias
Bank Indonesia. 2015. Laporan perekonomian Indonesia 2014. Jakarta: Bank Indonesia
Batubara, R.P. (2013). Strategi pemberdayaan masyarakat dalam pembangunan dan pengembangan Taman Wisata Alam Gunung Pancar (Bachelor Thesis). Nusa Bangsa University, Bogor.
Baumol, W. (1952). Welfare economics and the theory of the state. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Baysan, S. (2001). Perceptions of the environmental impacts of tourism: A comparative study of the attitudes of German, Russian and Turkish tourists in Kemer, Antalya. Tourism Geographies, 3(2), 218–235.
Bennett, R.M., & Blaney, R.J.P. (2005). Estimating the benefits of farm animal welfare legislation using the contingent valuation method. Agricultural Economics, 29(1), 85–98.
Bowen, HR. (1943). The interpretation of voting in the allocation of economic resources. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 58: 27-48
Budeanu, A. (2007). Sustainable tourist behaviour? A discussion of opportunities for change. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31(5), 499–508.
Cho, E.-K.., Han, S.-Y., Lee, H.-S., Lee, H.-R.; Kang, M.-J., & Kim, J-J. (2011). Estimating the economic impacts on the region of Jirisan Trail. The Journal of Korea Institute of Forest Recreation, 15(1), 33-38.
Curtin, S. (2010). The self-presentation and self-development of serious wildlife tourists. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12(1), 17-33.
Davis, D., & Tisdell, C. A. (1999). Tourist levies and willingness to pay for a whale shark experience. Tourism Economics, 5(2), 161-174
Eagles, P. F. J., & J. W. Cascagnette (1995). ''Canadian Ecotourists: Who Are They?''. Tourism Recreation Research, 20(1), 22-28.
Ekayani, M & Nuva. (2013). Economics of Ecotourism. In: Kim, S., Kang, M., & Sukmajaya, D. (eds.), Opportunities and challenges of ecotourism in ASEAN countries (pp. 192– 215). Seoul: Jungmin Publishing Co.
Ekayani, M., Nuva, Yasmin, R.K., Shaffitri, L.R., & Tampubolon, B.I. (2014). Taman nasional untuk siapa? Tantangan membangun wisata alam berbasis masyarakat di Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun Salak. Risalah Kebijakan Pertanian dan Lingkungan, 1(1), 46 – 52.
Gosken, F., Adaman, F., & Zenginobuz, E.U. (2002). On environmental concern, willingness to pay, and postmaterialist values. Environment and Behaviour,34(5), 616–633.
Jang, S. C., Morrison, A. M., & O’Leary, J. T. (2002). Benefit segmentation of Japanese pleasure travelers to the USA and Canada: selecting target markets based on the profitability and risk of individual market segments. Tourism Management, 23(4), 367-378.
Jeong, A.-S., & Park, Y.-C. (2003). An analysis on the development factors of green tourism - with special reference to the use value of recreation forests. The Journal of Korea Institute of Forest Recreation, 7(4), 31-40.
Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J. L., & Thaler, R. H. (1986). Fairness as a constraint on profit seeking: Entitlements in the market. The American Economic Review, 76(4), 728–741.
Kahneman, D., & Knetsch, J. L. (1992). Valuing public goods: The purchase of moral satisfaction. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management,22, 57-70.
Kraus, R.G. (1998). Recreation and leisure in modern society. Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Inc.
Kristinawanti, I. (2014). Pengaruh pengembangan wisata alam Taman Wisata Alam Gunung Pancar terhadap perspektif sosial ekonomi (Master Thesis). Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor.
Ku,K.-C., & Chen, T.-C. (2013). A conceptual process-based reference model for collaboratively managing recreational scuba diving in Kenting National Park. Marine Policy, 39, 1–10.
Lee, C. K., Lee, J. H., Kim, T. K., & Mjelde, J. W. (2010). Preferences and willingness to pay for bird-watching tour and interpretive services using a choice experiment. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(5), 695-708.
Loureiro, M.L., & Umberger, W.J., (2003). Estimating consumer willingness-to-pay for country-of-origin labeling. Journalof Agriculturaland Resources Economic,28, 287–301.
Maddala, G.S. (1983). Limited dependent and qualitative variables in econometrics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mathieson, A., & G. Wall. (1982). Tourism: economic, physical, and social impacts. London: Longman.
Nizar, M.A. (2015). Kelas menengah (middle class) danimplikasinya bagi perekonomian Indonesia. In Zuprianto (Eds.), Bunga rampai ekonomi keuangan (pp. 171-192). Jakarta: Nagakusuma Media Kreatif
Nowacki, M. (2013). Determinants of satisfaction of tourist attraction visitors, New Zealand: Active Poznan
Pagiola, S., Agostini, P., Gobbi, J., de Haan, C., & Ibrahim, M. (2004). Paying for biodiversity conservation services in agricultural landscape. Washington DC: The World Bank.
Park, W.-S. (2010). A study on non-use valuation of recreation forest in the Nature Conservation Zone. Journal of the Korea Real Estate Society, 28(1), 151-173.
Pearce D, G Atkinson, & S Mourato. (2006). Cost-benefit analysis and the environment: Recent development. Paris: OECD
Pizam, A. (1978). Tourism's impacts: The social costs to the destination community as perceived by its residents. Journal of Travel Research, 16(4), 8-12.
Pouta, E., Neuvonen, M., & Sievänen, T. (2009). Participation in crosscountry skiing in Finland under climate change: application of multiple hierarchy stratification perspective. Journal of Leisure Research, 41(1), 91108.
Ramdas, M., & Mohamed, B. (2014). Impacts of tourism on environmental attributes, environmental literacy and willingness to pay: A conceptual and theoretical review. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Science, 144 (2014), 378 – 391
Reynisdottir, M., Song, H., & Agrusa, J. (2008). Willingness to pay entrance fees to natural attractions: An Icelandic case study. Tourism Management, 29(6), 1076-1083.
Romsa, G., & Blenman, M. (1989). Vacation patterns of the elderly German. Annals of Tourism Research, 16(2), 178-188.
Sim, Kyu-Won; Kwon, Heon-Gyo; Lee, Sook-Hyang. (2013). A Study on economic value of national park based on contingent valuation methods - case of 20 national parks. The Journal of Korea Institute of Forest Recreation, 17(4): 33-40.
Stern, P. C. (2000). Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior,56(3), 407–424.
Supriyanto, B., & Sari, L. (2013). Ecotourism on National Parks in Indonesia. In Teguh, F., &Avenzora, R. (Eds.), Ecotourism and sustainable tourism development in Indonesia: Potentials, lessons and best practices (pp. 34–63). Jakarta: Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy Republic of Indonesia.
Szell, A. B., & Hallet, Iv, L. F. (2013). Attitudes and perceptions of local residents and tourists toward the protected area of Retezat National Park, Romania Department of Geography, 3(3), 45–61.
Tisdell, C., & Wilson, C. (2005). Perceived impacts of ecotourism on environmental learning and conservation: turtle watching as a case study. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 7(3), 291-302.
Tobin, J. (1958). Estimation of relationships for limited dependent variables. Econometrica.,26 (1) : 24-36
Togridou, A., Hovardas, T., & Pantis, J.D. (2006). Determinants of visitors’ willingness to pay for the National Marine Park of Zakynthos, Greece. Ecological Economics, 60 (1), 308-319
Uyarra, M.C., Côté, I.M., Gill, J.a., Tinch, R.R.T., Viner, D., & Watkinson, A.R. (2005). Island-specific preferences of tourists for environmental features: implications of climate change for tourism-dependent states. Environmental Conservation, 32(1), 11–19.
Villalobos-Céspedes, D., Galdeano-Gómez, E., & Tolón-Becerra, A. (2012). International demand for nature-based tourism in Costa Rica: Sociodemographic and travel indicators. Tourismos, 7(1).
Wagner, T.H., Hu T-W., & Dueńas G.V. (2000). Willingness to pay for mammography: item development and testing among five ethnic groups. Health Policy,53, 105-21
Wang, P.-W., & Jia, J.-B. (2012). Tourists’ willingness to pay for biodiversity conservation and environment protection, Dalai Lake protected area: Implications for entrance fee and sustainable management. Ocean & Coastal Management,62,24–33.


For further details log on website :

No comments:

Post a Comment