Abd Karim Norani 1,2, Rokiah Hashim 2*, Othman Sulaiman 2, Salim Hiziroglu 3 Salmiah Ujang 4, and Wan Noor Aidawati Wan Nadhari 5 1Centre of Technology (CoT) Unit, Politeknik Kota Kinabalu (PKK), 88460 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
2Division of Bioresource, Paper and Coatings Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia.
3Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078-6013, USA.
4Bio composite and Wood Protection Programme, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), 52109 Kepong, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
5Department of Technical Foundation, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Malaysian Institute of Chemical & Bioengineering Technology (UniKL MICET), Lot 1988, Kawasan Perindustrian Bandar Vendor, Taboh Naning, 78000 Alor Gajah, Melaka, Malaysia
The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the biodegradation behaviour of experimental particleboard bonded with modified 30 % of PVOH, 70 % of Oil palm starch and 3 % of nano silicon dioxide (SiO2). Boric acid at 2 % was also added as a cross-linker to PVOH in modified oil palm starch to enhance decay resistant for the samples. All the particleboards were evaluated by soil burial, borer and fungal strains tests. The samples were then compared with particleboard bonded with native oil palm starch and commercial urea formaldehyde (UF). The results indicated that particleboards bonded with modified PVOH/Oil palm starch were more resistant than particleboard bonded with their native starch and thus can be used as a potential binder for green particleboard in future. The SiO2 also showed a significant effect towards modified oil palm starch as compared to their native oil palm starch and commercial binder.
Adhesive is defined as any substance that is capable of holding materials together in a useful way by surface attachment that will prevent it from separation .Particleboards can be produced from any lignocellulosic materials, as long as they can contribute a proper physical, mechanical and biological resistance . Phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins and urea formaldehyde (UF) resins are commonly main binders in production of particleboard due to their high durability and fast curing adhesive . With increasing crude oil prices and environmental awareness, the bio-based adhesive was started to promote as an alternative bonding agent . Due to this problem, starch as a polymer of Dglucose which is stored in granules as a food source in most plants was used as a supplementary for synthetic polymers . Starch is also considered as a cheap material and easier to adapt for any chemical * Corresponding author: Rokiah Hashim E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org modification thus makes it as an interesting material. Starch was used as an adhesive in variable products, as binders, sizing material, glues and pastes . Recently, starch-based wood adhesive was widely used in interior applications . The bonding results produced from starch based adhesive generally was formed from both mechanical interlocking and van der Waals forces. It wet a polar surface of cellulose and penetrate into pores, thus formed a strong adhesive bond . While the modified starch is normally used as stabiliser or emulsifier and recently was precisely develop to be used as a binder in particleboards manufacturing . Particleboards when exposed to the places with high moisture conditions, are easier to be attacked by the decay . Several trials have been made to blend starch with biodegradable synthetic polymers, such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) due to its biodegradable behaviour and possess excellent mechanical properties . In previous study, the 30/70 PVOH/CS sample showed the highest weight loss compared to pure PVOH.
This finding was associated with higher corn starch content in the packaging film. The PVOH, which is biodegradable due to its high hydrolysability, exhibited a higher resistance to soil burial degradation . Boron / boric acid as reported in the various study was successfully accommodated as antibacterial and antifungal agents when they are mixed with polymers such as starch and PVOH . The significant weight loss was reported in enzymatic degradation test on thermoplastic starch (TPS) when it is added with nano-SiO2 content up to 6 % wt . Therefore the main objective of this study was to investigate the decay resistance of particleboard bonded with starch/PVOH/SiO2. Approximately 70 % of starch ratio with 30 % of PVOH and 3 % of Nano silicon dioxide (SiO2) will be compared with their native starch and commercial binder.
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