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Tuesday, 24 April 2018

NANO-BASED WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITES MANUFACTURED FROM EASTERN REDCEDAR

Author
Sponsoring Institution
National Institute of Food and Agriculture
Project Status
NEW
Funding Source
Reporting Frequency
Annual
Accession No.
1000020
Grant No.
(N/A)
Project No.
OKL02862
Proposal No.
(N/A)
Multistate No.
(N/A)
Program Code
(N/A)
Project Start Date
Oct 1, 2013
Project End Date
Sep 30, 2018
Grant Year
(N/A)
Project Director
HIZIROGLU, S.
Recipient Organization
OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY
(N/A)
STILLWATER,OK 74078
Performing Department
Natural Resource Ecology & Management 
Non Technical Summary
Currently, the area covered by Eastern redcedar in Oklahoma is estimated beyond 11 million acres, and it is projected that it will increase within several years which may cover approximately 28 % of the Oklahoma landscape. The eastern redcedar population is growing at the rate of 750 acres per day, resulting in a significant adverse impact on ecology and the trees are not only negatively affecting people's health, but reducing productivity from grasslands and destroying wildlife habitat. The significance of the proposed research lies in its potential to expand the use of low quality and invasive Eastern redcedar in value-added products manufactured using fiber resources from such invasive species and plastic material. This research project proposes to develop a transformative wood plastic composite (WPC) technology that would impact Oklahoma's economy by exploiting one of its vast and largely underutilized resources, the Eastern redcedar. The proposed effort will bring together such species and recycled plastic resources in Oklahoma to overcome the current problem of poor stiffness, strength, and creep-resistance in WPCs. In particular, this property enhancement in WPCs will be pursued by incorporation of nanoclay additives including clays and other particles into the thermoplastic matrix.
Animal Health Component
0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic
(N/A)
Applied
(N/A)
Developmental
100%
Classification
Knowledge Area (KA)Subject of Investigation (SOI)Field of Science (FOS)Percent
51106992020100%
Goals / Objectives
1. The proposed effort will develop a novel WPC with nanoclay-reinforced polyethylene as the matrix and Eastern redcedar fibers as the filler. In terms of mechanical properties and cost, the WPC is targeted to be competitive over its commercial counterparts in the present market. As the prototype, composite panels having various particle sizes will be developed. The proposed project will also conduct a commercial feasibility analysis. 2. There is a critical need for improving the mechanical properties of plastic matrix in WPC technology. The proposed project will reveal how and to what degree exfoliation of nanoclay layers in polyethylene including energy-driven dispersion of nanoclay layers leading to increased spacing between them at the atomic scale impacts elastic modulus, strength and water absorption. 3. The stress transfer from plastic matrix to wood fiber critically relies on the nature of matrix-fiber interfacial bonding, which will be investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The interfacial bonding and mechanical properties are expected to be enhanced by blending of polyethylene with maleated polyethylene (MPE).
Project Methods
Commercially manufactured nanoclay will be mixed with polyethylene (PE) having a melt flow index of 0.7 g/min at 190oC using a two-roll mill mixer. Subsequently, the mixture will be melt-blended in a 32 mm twin-screw extruder at 160oC and 40 rpm. The nanoclay-reinforced PE will then be characterized as well as employed as a matrix in the preparation of WPC samples. Initially different types of nanoclay, namely Cloisite 10A, 15A, and 20A, will be investigated at weight ratios of 3 and 6%. The average spacing between nanoclay layers and therefore their exfoliation in PE will be determined by X-Ray diffraction (Bruker D8 Discovery diffractometer equipped with Cu Kα (λ = 1.54151 Å) radiation as a function of extrusion cycles (i.e., 1, 5, 25). Furthermore, the microstructure of the specimens will be investigated by using Scanning Electron Microcopy, JEOL JEM-2100. The procedure will be repeated with PE, which is blended with maleic anhydride-polyethylene (MPE) (5% by weight) as a coupling agent to improve the adhesion between nanoclay and PE as well as wood and PE. The nanoclay/PE extrudes will first be granulated in a grinder for mechanical testing. The nanoclay-reinforced PE granules will be compression-molded into specimens at 160oC using a computer-controlled press, operated at a pressure of 5.5 MPa. The tensile and flexural properties of the samples will be conducted using a Com-Ten Universal testing unit with 1,000 kg load cell for the acquisition of elastic modulus and modulus of rupture. The mechanical reinforcement of the PE samples is expected to be enhanced by increasing degree of nanoclay exfoliation. Eastern redcedar fine particles with 60-mesh size will be compounded with the prepared nanoclay/PE at a wood/matrix weight ratio of 40% using the twin-screw extruder operated at 160oC and 40 rpm. Surface roughness of the samples will be evaluated employing a stylus type Hommel T-500 profilometer (9). In addition, Raman spectroscopy (WITek alpha300 M, 532 nm laser excitation, Peltier-cooled CCD detector, 1800 lines/mm grating) will be employed to monitor the degree of adhesion between the matrix and wood fibers from the intensity of Raman peak at 1740 cm−1, which is assigned to C=O stretching of ester bonds formed by the reaction of MPE and wood surface hydroxyl groups. Finally, samples will be immersed in distilled water for up to two months to evaluate their dimensional stability in terms of thickness swelling and water absorption based on ASTM 1037 (2). A cost and benefit analysis of developing these wooden panels will be conducted under the current (short-term) and future (long-term) market situations. First, the availability of Eastern redcedar in Oklahoma will be estimated. Then, the study will focus on estimating the cost of producing the panels. Estimating the production costs will include assessing raw material costs (for example, some landowners may be willing to give the eastern redcedar trees away, and some may even be willing to pay for tree removal), transportation costs, capital requirements for building facilities, operating costs, and other factors. The current and future value of the newly developed wooden panels will be evaluated based on current and expected market prices of other comparable wood products. The co-PIs will also arrange visits to various wood products manufacturers in Oklahoma in search of industrial partners and market information. Finally, the study will provide the macroeconomic impact of developing Eastern redcedar-based panels on the overall Oklahoma economy.
Progress 10/01/16 to 09/30/17

Outputs
Target Audience:Landowners and wood-based panel manufacturers. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?One graduate student assisted some of the experiments of the study. Individual regular discussion sessions related to progress of the work were held with the Ph.D. student. Also one hourly undergraduate student was trained to run some of the tests of the experimental panels. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?As an agricultural crop, timber products rank third in value in Oklahoma behind wheat and hay. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is widely distributed in Oklahoma. The greatest area of expansion have been in the southwestern part of the state, characterized by an arid climate and rocky soils, and the northwestern part of the state, primarily open prairie land dissected by waterways. State biologists are now concerned that encroaching redcedar may someday take over the tall grass prairies in northern Oklahoma. Current acreage of Eastern redcedar in Oklahoma is estimated beyond ten million acres. Use of low-quality Eastern redcedar as a raw material in lumber manufacturing is not currently substantial due to its low value and the irregular growth pattern. Eastern redcedar is a problem to farmers and ranchers who often lose crop and pasture land to the species. The trees are generally considered a water-stealing, and space taking nuisance. Wood products industry in Oklahoma is characterized by a large number of small companies using rather labor-intensive operations to transform hardwoods such as oak into a various of wood-based products. If landowners make use of state and federal program to remove redcedar trees from their property, the costs of delivery inputs to a centralized panel product facility maybe only short-distance transportation cost. This project directly addresses the development of a green value-added panel products from under-utilized Eastern redcedar. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Properties of the experimental panels made with mixture of various ratios of particles from different species will be evaluated within the next reporting period.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? The main objective of the study was to determine both physical and mechanical properties of particleboard panels manufactured from Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.). Mixture of different percentages of silicon dioxide nano-particles, two percent of urea formaldehyde and modified starch was used as binder for the samples. Experimental panels in the form of three-layer configuration were made from the raw material at different density levels. Bending characteristics, namely modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, internal bonding strength as well as thickness swelling and water absorption of the samples were determined. Scientific objectives met : Particleboard panels using Eastern redcedar as raw material having nano-particles and low percent of urea formaldehyde were successfully manufactured. Basic properties of the samples were determined satisfactory. Significant results achieved, including major findings, developments, or conclusions: It appears that increased percentage of nanoparticle adversely influenced mechanical properties of the samples. The highest modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture values of the samples with 0.80 g/cm3 density level were found as 2,200 MPa, and 11.12 MPa, respectively. Since only two percent urea formaldehyde was used in the panels their formaldehyde emission was considerable low suggesting these panels are very environmentally friendly. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is commonly found in central and eastern in the US and one of the most widely distributed indigenous conifers in Oklahoma. This species is not very efficient for lumber manufacturing because of low-wood quality. Particleboard panels are generally produced with wood particles and binder. This product is used in the manufacture of furniture, cabinets, tables, flooring, kitchen tops, home constructions, and other applications. The majority of particleboard is generally manufactured using urea formaldehyde as a binder. This adhesive has many advantages such as low cost, ease of use under a wide variety of curing conditions, the fast reaction time in hot press, resistance to microorganisms and to abrasion, along with excellent thermal properties compared to other resins. However, formaldehyde emission is considered a dangerous substance and has been linked to human health problems for both short and long-term exposure. Using low percentage of formaldehyde has gained an increasing attention in wood composite industry as a binder due to its environmental friendly approach. In this study Eastern redcedar particles were dried to 2-3% moisture content in a laboratory type oven. Dried particles were classified into two particle sizes, namely fine and coarse, on 20 mesh and 60 mesh screens, respectively. Coarse particles were used for the core layer of the three-layer particleboard while the fine particles were used for the surface layers of the board. Panels with dimension of 400 mm by 400 mm were produced for the experiments. Formation of mats was performed into a mold followed by a pre-pressing using a hot press machine at a pressure of 5 MPa and a temperature 165ºC for 20 min. Then the panels were cooled and conditioned in a controlled room with a temperature of 20ºC and a relative humidity of 65% for several days before cutting them into test specimens. Within the perspective of this study such invasive under-utilized species is expected to be converted into environmentally friendly value-added product. Key outcomes and other accomplished realized: It appears that dimensional stability of the panels did not meet minimum requirements for the accepted standard. The thickness swelling values of the sample ranged from 28.88% to 47.58% as a result of 2 h and 24 h water soaking Panels had satisfactory modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture as well as internal bond strength. Overall properties of the panels had enhanced characteristics due to addition of one percent nano particles.

Publications
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: CHOTIKHUN, A. S.HIZIROGLU. 2017. Some Properties of Composite Panels Manufactured from Eastern Redcedar Using Modified Starch as a Binder. Journal of Natural Fibers. DOI:10.1080 /15440478.2016. 1240462.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: KARAMURI,S., S.HIZIROGLU, K.KALKAN. 2017. The Distribution and Role of Nanoclay in Lignocellulosic-Polymer Blends. The Royal Society of Chemistry, RSC Advances.7:19406-19416.DOI:10.1039/c7ra02082a.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: KETKAEW,S.P.KASEMSIRI, S.HIZIROGLU W.MONGKOLTHANARUK R.WANNASUTTA U.PONGSA, P.CHINDAPRASIRT. 2017. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil Content on Properties of Green Biocomposites Based on Cassava Starch and Sugarcane Bagasse for Bioactive Packaging. Journal of Polymer Environment. DOI 10.1007/s10924-017-0957-x.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: KANTASIRI,T. P.KASEMSIRI, U.PONGSA, S . HIZIROGLU. 2017.Properties of Lightweight Weight Concrete Containing Crumb Rubber Subjected to High Temperature. Key Engineering Materials.DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/ KEM.718.177.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: KETKAEW,S P.KASEMSIRI, U.PONGSA.S HIZIROGLU. 2017. Properties of Cassava Starch-Based Foam Composite Containing Sugarcane Fiber and Origanum vulgare L Essential Oil. Key Engineering Materials. DOI:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.718.21.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: HAZIR, E, H.KUCUK, S. HIZIROGLU. 2017. Optimization of Sanding Parameters Using Response Surface Methodology. Maderas. 19 (4): DOI:10:4067ISO718221X2017005000034.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Aujchariya Chotikhun. Characterization of Particleboard from Eastern Redcedar Using Nano Particle Added Modified Starch as Binder. PhD dissertation. Oklahoma State University.

Progress 10/01/15 to 09/30/16

Outputs
Target Audience:Landowners and wood products manufacturers. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?One graduate student assisted some of the experiments of the study. Individual regular discussion sessions related to progress of the work were held with the graduate student. Also one hourly undergraduate student was trained to run some of the tests of the experimental panels. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?As an agricultural crop, timber products rank third in value in Oklahoma behind wheat and hay. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is widely distributed in Oklahoma. The greatest area of expansion have been in the southwestern part of the state, characterized by an arid climate and rocky soils, and the northwestern part of the state, primarily open prairie land dissected by waterways. State biologists are now concerned that encroaching redcedar may someday take over the tall grass prairies in northern Oklahoma. Current acreage of Eastern redcedar in Oklahoma is estimated beyond 9 million acres. Use of low-quality Eastern redcedar as a raw material in lumber manufacturing is not currently substantial due to its low value and the irregular growth pattern. Eastern redcedar is a problem to farmers and ranchers who often lose crop and pasture land to the species. The trees are generally considered a water-stealing, and space taking nuisance. Wood products industry in Oklahoma is characterized by a large number of small companies using rather labor-intensive operations to transform hardwoods such as oak into a various of wood-based products. If landowners make use of state and federal program to remove redcedar trees from their property, the costs of delivery inputs to a centralized panel product facility maybe only short-distance transportation cost. This project directly addressed the development of a green value-added structural panel products from under-utilized Eastern redcedar. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Properties of the experimental panels made with different ratios of nano particles will be evaluated within the next reporting period.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? The main objective of the study was to determine both physical and mechanical properties of particleboard panels manufactured from Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) added silisium oxide nano-particles, low percent of urea formaldehyde as binder. Experimental panels in the form of three-layer configuration were made from the raw material at different density levels. Bending characteristics, namely modulus of elastically, modulus of rupture, internal bonding strength in addition to dimensional stability of the samples were determined. Scientific objectives met : Experimental panels using Eastern redcedar as raw material having nano-particles and low percent of urea formaldehyde were successfully manufactured. Basic properties of the samples were determined satisfactory. Significant results achieved, including major findings, developments, or conclusions: The highest modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture values of the samples were found as 2,200 MPa, and 11.12 MPa, respectively for the samples with 0.80 g/cm3 density level. Formaldehyde emission of the samples was considerable low suggesting these panels are very environmentally friendly. However dimensional stability of the panels needs to be enhanced. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is commonly found in central and eastern in the US and one of the most widely distributed indigenous conifers in Oklahoma. This species is not very efficient for lumber manufacturing because of low-wood quality.Particleboard panels are generally produced with wood particles and binder. This product is used in the manufacture of furniture, cabinets, tables, flooring, kitchen tops, home constructions, and other applications. The majority of particleboard panels is generally manufactured using urea formaldehyde as a binder. This adhesive has many advantages such as low cost, ease of use under a wide variety of curing conditions, the fast reaction time in hot press, water solubility, low cure temperatures, resistance to microorganisms and to abrasion, along with excellent thermal properties compared to other resins. However, formaldehyde emission is considered a dangerous substance and has been linked to human health problems for both short and long-term exposure. Using low percentage of formaldehyde has gained an increasing attention in wood composite industry as a binder due to its environmental friendly approach. In this study Eastern redcedar particles were dried to 2-3% moisture content in a laboratory type oven. Dried particles were classified into two particle sizes, namely fine and coarse, on 20 mesh and 60 mesh screens, respectively. Coarse particles were used for the core layer of the three-layer particleboard while the fine particles were used for the surface layers of the board. Panels with dimension of 400 mm by 400 mm were produced for the experiments. Formation of mats was performed into a mold followed by a pre-pressing using a hot press machine at a pressure of 5 MPa and a temperature 165ºC for 20 min. Then the panels were cooled and conditioned in a controlled room with a temperature of 20ºC and a relative humidity of 65% for several days before cutting them into test specimens. Within the scope of this study such invasive under-utilized species is expected to be converted into environmentally friendly value-added product. Key outcomes and other accomplished realized: It appears that dimensional stability of the panels were unsatisfied and did not meet minimum requirements for the accepted standard. The thickness swelling values of the sample ranged from 28.88% to 47.58% as a result of 2 h and 24 h water soaking Panels had satisfactory modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture as well as internal bond strength. Overall properties of the panels had enhanced characteristics due to addition of nano particles.

Publications
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: CHOTIKHUN, A. S.HIZIROGLU. 2016. Measurement of Dimensional Stability of Heat Treated Southern Red Oak (Quercus falcate Michx.). Measurement. 87: 99-103.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: NASSER, R, M. SALEM , S. HIZIROGLU, H. AL-MEFARREJ, M.ALAM, I. AREF. 2016. Chemical Analysis of Different Parts of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Using Ultimate, Proximate and Thermo-Gravimetric Techniques for Energy Production. Energies. MDPI. Energies. MDPI. 9-374, Doi:10.3390/en 9050374 .
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: SULAIMAN, N.S, R. HASHIM, S. HIZIROGLU, M. H. MOHAMAD AMINI, O. SULAIMAN, M. E. SELAMAT. 2016. Rubberwood Particleboard Manufactured Using Epichlorohydrin-modified Rice Starch as a Binder. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology. 50 (2):329-338.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: CRAIGE,C.C, M.D. BUSER, R.S. FRAZIER, S. HIZIROGLU, R. HOLCOMB, R. HUHNKE. 2016. Conceptual Design of a Biofeedstock Supply Chain Model for Eastern Redcedar. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 121:12-124.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: BEKHTA P, P. LYUTYY, S. HIZIROGLU, G. ORTYNSKA. 2016. Properties of Composite Panels Made from Tetra-Pak and Polyethylene Waste Material. Journal of Polymers and the Environment. DOI 10. 1007 /s10924-016-0758-7.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: DULSANG, N., P.KASEMSIRI, P. POSI, S.HIZIROGLU, P.CHINDAPRASIRT. 2016. Characterization of an Environment Friendly Lightweight Concrete Containing Ethyl Vinyl Acetate Waste. Materials and Design. 96:350-356.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: AMINI MOHAMAD,M.H., R.HASHIM., N.S.SULAIMAN., S.HIZIROGLU., O.SULAIMAN., M.MOHAMED., S.N.SARMIN.,M.MASRI., M.A.SULAIMAN., M.B.ABU BAKAR. 2016. Effect of Urea Formaldehyde Addition to the Dimensional Stability of Particleboard Made Using Glutardialdehyde Modified Corn Starch as Binder with FT-IR Analysis. Materials Science Forum. Vol.840:108-111.

Progress 10/01/14 to 09/30/15

Outputs
Target Audience:Landowners and wood products manufacturers. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?One graduate student assisted some of the experiments of the study. Individual regular discussion sessions related to progress of the work were held with the graduate student. Also one hourly undergraduate student was trained to run some of the tests of the experimental panels. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?As an agricultural crop, timber products rank third in value in Oklahoma behind wheat and hay. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is widely distributed in Oklahoma. The greatest area of expansion have been in the southwestern part of the state, characterized by an arid climate and rocky soils, and the northwestern part of the state, primarily open prairie land dissected by waterways. State biologists are now concerned that encroaching redcedar may someday take over the tall grass prairies in northern Oklahoma. Current acreage of Eastern redcedar in Oklahoma is estimated beyond 9 million acres. Use of low-quality Eastern redcedar as a raw material in lumber manufacturing is not currently substantial due to its low value and the irregular growth pattern. Eastern redcedar is a problem to farmers and ranchers who often lose crop and pasture land to the species. The trees are generally considered a water-stealing, and space taking nuisance. Wood products industry in Oklahoma is characterized by a large number of small companies using rather labor-intensive operations to transform hardwoods such as oak into a various of wood-based products. If landowners make use of state and federal program to remove redcedar trees from their property, the costs of delivery inputs to a centralized panel product facility maybe only short-distance transportation cost. This project directly addressed the development of a green value-added structural panel products from under-utilized Eastern redcedar. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Properties of the experimental panels made with different ratios of starch and nano particles will be evaluated within the next reporting period.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Major Activities completed: The objective of the study was to evaluate basic properties of particleboard panels manufactured from Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) using nano-particles, modified starch and low percent of urea formaldehyde as binder. Experimental panels in the form of three-layer configuration were made from the raw material at two density levels. Bending characteristics, namely modulus of elastically, modulus of rupture, internal bonding strength in addition to dimensional stability and surface roughness of the samples were determined. Scientific objectives met : Experimental panels using Eastern redcedar as raw material having nano-particle and modified starch were successfully manufactured. Basic properties of the samples were determined and found that they are satisfactory as compared to those of commercially made panels. Significant results achieved, including major findings, developments, or conclusions: The highest modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture values of the samples were found as 2,344.32 MPa, and 12.14 MPa, respectively for the samples with 0.80 g/cm3 density level. Both bending and internal bond values of the samples were comparable to those of commercially manufactured panels made from other species. Formaldehyde emission of the samples was considerable low suggesting these panels are very environmentally friendly. It appears that dimensional stability of the panels needs to be enhanced. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is commonly found in central and eastern in the US and one of the most widely distributed indigenous conifers in Oklahoma. This species is not very efficient for lumber manufacturing because of low-wood quality. The encroachment of eastern redcedar has brought several ecological concerns to farmers, ranchers and wildlife species, in case of decreasing ground water yield and an increased risk of wildfires. The demand for particleboard has recently increased a favorable market environment for Eastern redcedar products. Particleboard panels are generally produced with wood particles and binder. This product is used in the manufacture of furniture, cabinets, tables, flooring, kitchen tops, home constructions, and other applications. The majority of particleboard panels is generally manufactured using urea formaldehyde as a binder. This adhesive has many advantages such as low cost, ease of use under a wide variety of curing conditions, the fast reaction time in hot press, water solubility, low cure temperatures, resistance to microorganisms and to abrasion, along with excellent thermal properties compared to other resins. However, formaldehyde emission is considered a dangerous substance and has been linked to human health problems for both short and long-term exposure. Modified starch has gained an increasing attention in wood composite industry as a binder due to its environmental friendly approach. Starch can be produced from various plants such as corn, cassava, potato, and rice. Using modified starch can eliminate formaldehyde emission in panel manufacture. In this study Eastern redcedar particles were dried to 2-3% moisture content in a laboratory type oven. Dried particles were classified into two particle sizes, namely fine and coarse, on 20 mesh and 60 mesh screens, respectively. Coarse particles were used for the core layer of the three-layer particleboard while the fine particles were used for the surface layers of the board. Modified starch was mixed 2 % nan-particles, corn starch and glutardialdehyde, which is a colorless oily liquid organic compound and widely used as disinfector agent for medical equipment.. Initially corn starch powder was dissolved in distilled water with a temperature of 30 ºC before it was stirred and added 25% glutardialdehyde solution. Panels with dimension of 400 mm by 400 mm were produced for the experiments. Formation of mats was performed into a mold followed by a pre-pressing using a hot press machine at a pressure of 5 MPa and a temperature 165ºC for 20 min. Then the panels were cooled and conditioned in a controlled room with a temperature of 20ºC and a relative humidity of 65% for several days before cutting them into test specimens. Within the scope of this study such invasive under-utilized species is expected to be converted into environmentally friendly value-added product. Key outcomes and other accomplishments realized: Dimensional stability of the panels were unsatisfied and did not meet minimum requirements for the accepted standard. The thickness swelling values of the sample ranged from 26.88% to 37.58% as a result of 2 h and 24 h water soaking. The water absorption value also ranged from 68.69% to 86.44% for the same exposure time periods. The surface roughness measurements revealed that an average roughness value of 6.03 microns. It appears that modified corn starch of both density levels did not create a high level of densification on the surface layers with mixing urea formaldehyde. Panels had modulus of elasticity of 2,241.92 MPa, 2,344.32 MPa, modulus of rupture of 11.17 MPa, 12.14 MPa and internal bond strength as 0.57 MPa, 0.62 MPa for the panel with 0.70 g/cm3 and 0.80 g/cm3 density levels, respectively. Overall properties of the panels had enhanced characteristics due to addition of nano particles. Considering all properties above, modified starch with glutardialdehyde could have a potential to be used as green binder to manufacture wood based panels.

Publications
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: KARAMURI,S., S.HIZIROGLU., K.KALKAN. 2015. Thermoset-Crosslinked Lignocellulose: a Moldable Plant Biomass. American Chemical Society (ACS). Applied Materials and Interfaces. 7(12):6596-6604.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: OZDEMIR,T., S.HIZIROGLU., M. KOCAPINAR. 2015. Effect of Heartwood and Sapwood Ratio on Adhesion Strength of Finished Wood Species. Advances in Material Science and Engineering. Article ID 418618. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/418618.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: DILIK,T.,S.ERDINLER.,E.HAZIR.,H.KOC.,S.HIZIROGLU. 2015. Adhesion Strength of Wood-Based Composites Coated with Cellulosic and Polyurethane Paints. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. Article ID 745675 http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/745675.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: SALLEH,M.K.,R.HASHIM.,O.SULAIMAN.,S.HIZIROGLU.,W.N.A. WAN NADHARI., N.A.KARIM., N.JUMHURI.,L.Z.PING ANG. 2015. Evaluation of Properties of Starch Based Adhesives and Particleboard Manufactured from them. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology. 29 (4) 319-336.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: HEGAZY, S., K. AHMED., S.HIZIROGLU. 2015. Oriented Strandboard Production from Water Treated Date Palm Fronds. Bioresources. 10 (1): 448-456.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: DILIK, T., S. HIZIROGLU,S. 2015. Some properties of Linoleum and Wood Laminated Flooring Panels with Magnesium Substrate. Bioresources. 10 (1):1667-1674.

Progress 10/01/13 to 09/30/14

Outputs
Target Audience: Wood products manufacturers, landowners, harvesters and wood plastic producers. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Two visiting professors and two graduate students assisted some of the experiments of the study. Individual regular discussion sessions related to progress of the work were held with the visiting professors. Also one hourly undergraduate students was trained to run some of the tests of the experimental panels. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Results have been disseminated through presentations, publications, landowner/business owners, and fact sheets. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Ninty percent by weight and moldable composite by controlled crosslinking of Eastern redcedar wood microparticles by a thermoset adhesive will be manufactured in the next phase of this work. Thermoplastic materials are widely used for many applications including automobile industry and countless novelty items. Common use of plastics is attributable to their low cost and easy manufacturing process. A thermoplastic can be molten or softened at relatively low temperatures and subsequently molded or extruded into any shape. In particular, the technique of injection molding has revolutionized the plastics industry by many applications.Wood based products as natural alternative to plastics, have superior mechanical stiffness and strength. However, wood cannot be molded or extruded similar to plastics. Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) combine the mechanical strength of wood with the durability and resistance of plastics against environmental exposure and biological deterioration agents such as termites and fungi. In comparison with bulk wood, the stiffness and strength of current WPCs are still significantly poor. A possible improvement would be by replacement of the thermoplastic matrix with a thermoset polymer. Specifically, epoxy thermosets is expected providing extensive usage in dental fillings/prostheses, nanocomposites and superglues due to their simplicity, versatility and robustness of the epoxide crosslinking chemistry.

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? This project addresses a major need to use underutilized invasive species as raw material for value-added panel manufacture and to test the properties of such panels to determine if they are similar to other panel products made from different species. Wood plastic composite (WPC) is a panel or lumber product made from recycled plastic and small wood particles or fibers. Such products are widely used in the USA for many applications including decking, roof tiles, playground equipment, picnic tables, fencing rails, window lineals and automotive components. Wood plastic composite samples manufactured with nano-clay added Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) particles. Three percent and six percent nano-clay was added to 40 percent wood particles and 60 percent high density polyethylene (HDPE). Dimensional and mechanical properties of the specimens were evaluated. Also behavior of Eastern redcedar wood as function of heat treatment which plays an important role in manufacture of composite panels was also evaluated. Experimental samples using Eastern redcedar as raw material and recycled plastic having nano-clay contents were successfully manufactured. Properties of the samples were tested and found that they all are comparable to those of commercially manufactured products using other wood species as raw material. Solid samples of Eastern redcedar were also exposed to heat treatment to evaluate their dimensional stability and determined that their shrinkage and swelling characteristics enhanced. The rate of WPC production increased substantially last 10 years as decking materials in terms of the market share. Wood plastic composites are relatively new products as compared to the long history of natural lumber or traditional wood composites, such as particleboard or fiberboard. The North American WPC market has reached almost one billion dollars in sales with an increase of 200 percent between 2001 and 2006 and it is expected that 20 percent annual growth will take place within the next decade. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is considered an invasive species in Oklahoma affecting overall ecology and wildlife. Past studies evaluated properties of particleboard, structural type products and sandwich type panels made from Eastern redcedar and concluded that properties of such products are comparable to those commercially produced from other wood species. Eastern redcedar particles were screened to 40 mesh size, mixed in a blender with high density polyethylene (HDPE), nano-clay and commercially manufactured maleic anhydride polyethylene as a coupling agent to improve the adhesion between plastic and wood particles. Three percent and six percent nanoclay were added into the samples based on the total weight of the material to enhance dimensional stability of the samples. The mixture was fed into a conical counter rotating twin screw extruder before being used as raw material for injection molder to produce dogbone shape samples. Initial roughness measurements were taken on each sample employing stylus type equipment to evaluate surface roughness of the samples. The stylus profilometer, Hommel T-500 unit equipped with a skid type pick-up can determine two roughness parameters, namely average roughness and mean peak-to-valley height. Surface quality of control samples and those exposed to eight days water soaking was measured. Thickness and weight of the samples were also determined before and after soaking them in water at accuracy levels of 0.01 mm and 0.1 g, respectively. Water absorption of the control samples was 0.31 percent at the end of one day of water soaking test. Three percent and 6 percent clay added specimens had 0.28 percent and 0.18 percent for corresponding values. As a result of eight days water soaking, control samples and those made with 3 percent and 6 percent clay added specimens had 1.15 percent, 1.10 percent and 0.96 percent thickness swelling values, respectively. It seems that nano-clay enhanced the dimensional stability of the samples ranging from 4.5% to 19.79% compared with that of control samples. This study demonstrated that having nano-clay in the samples improved their thickness swelling. As a result of eight days water soaking, control samples had an average thickness swelling value of 0.59 percent while those samples with 3 percent and 6 percent nano-clay had 0.50 percent and 0.46 percent as corresponding values. Roughness of any kind of composite including WPC play an important role in further manufacturing steps such as finishing. Based on results from the stylus type equipment employed in this work, control samples had an average roughness value of 1.63 micron at the initial condition. Nano-clay in the samples slightly improved their surface roughness acting as a filler. Composites made with 3 percent and 6 percent nano-clay had 1.27 micron and 1.11 micron roughness values in dry condition. This suggests that nano-clay acts as a plasticizer, protecting distortion of surface layers of the samples due to water damage. Based on the findings in this experimental work it appears that Eastern reedcedar could have potential to be used as raw material to produce WPC with acceptable dimensional stability. Addition of limited amount of nano-clay into the samples further enhanced overall dimensional stability of the specimens. Overall mechanical properties of the samples were adversely influenced by increasing clay content in the samples. This study investigated some of the basic properties of WPC samples manufactured from Eastern redcedar. Physical properties of experimental samples were determined as satisfactory and comparable to those found in previous works. These results suggest that Eastern redcedar as an underutilized species could have a potential to manufacture such composite panels. In further studies it would be desirable to make panels with other type of nano-particles rather than clay so that mechanical characteristics of the specimens can also be enhanced. In addition to properties tested in this study linear expansion and hardness of such panels would be tested to have a better understanding of overall properties of the samples. Sponsoring InstitutionNational Institute of Food and Agriculture Project Status NEW Funding SourceMCINTIRE-STENNIS Reporting FrequencyAnnualAccession No. 1000020 Grant No. (N/A) Project No. OKL02862 Proposal No. (N/A) Multistate No. (N/A) Program Code(N/A)Project Start Date Oct 1, 2013 Project End Date Sep 30, 2018 Grant Year (N/A) Project Director
HIZIROGLU, S.
Recipient Organization
OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY 
(N/A) 
STILLWATER,OK 74078 Performing Department
Natural Resource Ecology & Management 
Non Technical Summary
Currently, the area covered by Eastern redcedar in Oklahoma is estimated beyond 11 million acres, and it is projected that it will increase within several years which may cover approximately 28 % of the Oklahoma landscape. The eastern redcedar population is growing at the rate of 750 acres per day, resulting in a significant adverse impact on ecology and the trees are not only negatively affecting people's health, but reducing productivity from grasslands and destroying wildlife habitat. The significance of the proposed research lies in its potential to expand the use of low quality and invasive Eastern redcedar in value-added products manufactured using fiber resources from such invasive species and plastic material. This research project proposes to develop a transformative wood plastic composite (WPC) technology that would impact Oklahoma's economy by exploiting one of its vast and largely underutilized resources, the Eastern redcedar. The proposed effort will bring together such species and recycled plastic resources in Oklahoma to overcome the current problem of poor stiffness, strength, and creep-resistance in WPCs. In particular, this property enhancement in WPCs will be pursued by incorporation of nanoclay additives including clays and other particles into the thermoplastic matrix. Animal Health Component 0%
Research Effort Categories
Basic(N/A)Applied(N/A)Developmental100%Classification

Knowledge Area (KA) Subject of Investigation (SOI) Field of Science (FOS) Percent
511 0699 2020 100%
Knowledge Area
511 - New and Improved Non-Food Products and Processes; 

Subject Of Investigation
0699 - Trees, forests, and forest products, general; 

Field Of Science
2020 - Engineering; 
Keywordseastern redcedarwood plastic compositeswpcnano particleswood productswood products manufacturingGoals / Objectives
1. The proposed effort will develop a novel WPC with nanoclay-reinforced polyethylene as the matrix and Eastern redcedar fibers as the filler. In terms of mechanical properties and cost, the WPC is targeted to be competitive over its commercial counterparts in the present market. As the prototype, composite panels having various particle sizes will be developed. The proposed project will also conduct a commercial feasibility analysis. 2. There is a critical need for improving the mechanical properties of plastic matrix in WPC technology. The proposed project will reveal how and to what degree exfoliation of nanoclay layers in polyethylene including energy-driven dispersion of nanoclay layers leading to increased spacing between them at the atomic scale impacts elastic modulus, strength and water absorption. 3. The stress transfer from plastic matrix to wood fiber critically relies on the nature of matrix-fiber interfacial bonding, which will be investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The interfacial bonding and mechanical properties are expected to be enhanced by blending of polyethylene with maleated polyethylene (MPE). Project Methods
Commercially manufactured nanoclay will be mixed with polyethylene (PE) having a melt flow index of 0.7 g/min at 190oC using a two-roll mill mixer. Subsequently, the mixture will be melt-blended in a 32 mm twin-screw extruder at 160oC and 40 rpm. The nanoclay-reinforced PE will then be characterized as well as employed as a matrix in the preparation of WPC samples. Initially different types of nanoclay, namely Cloisite 10A, 15A, and 20A, will be investigated at weight ratios of 3 and 6%. The average spacing between nanoclay layers and therefore their exfoliation in PE will be determined by X-Ray diffraction (Bruker D8 Discovery diffractometer equipped with Cu Kα (λ = 1.54151 Å) radiation as a function of extrusion cycles (i.e., 1, 5, 25). Furthermore, the microstructure of the specimens will be investigated by using Scanning Electron Microcopy, JEOL JEM-2100. The procedure will be repeated with PE, which is blended with maleic anhydride-polyethylene (MPE) (5% by weight) as a coupling agent to improve the adhesion between nanoclay and PE as well as wood and PE. The nanoclay/PE extrudes will first be granulated in a grinder for mechanical testing. The nanoclay-reinforced PE granules will be compression-molded into specimens at 160oC using a computer-controlled press, operated at a pressure of 5.5 MPa. The tensile and flexural properties of the samples will be conducted using a Com-Ten Universal testing unit with 1,000 kg load cell for the acquisition of elastic modulus and modulus of rupture. The mechanical reinforcement of the PE samples is expected to be enhanced by increasing degree of nanoclay exfoliation. Eastern redcedar fine particles with 60-mesh size will be compounded with the prepared nanoclay/PE at a wood/matrix weight ratio of 40% using the twin-screw extruder operated at 160oC and 40 rpm. Surface roughness of the samples will be evaluated employing a stylus type Hommel T-500 profilometer (9). In addition, Raman spectroscopy (WITek alpha300 M, 532 nm laser excitation, Peltier-cooled CCD detector, 1800 lines/mm grating) will be employed to monitor the degree of adhesion between the matrix and wood fibers from the intensity of Raman peak at 1740 cm−1, which is assigned to C=O stretching of ester bonds formed by the reaction of MPE and wood surface hydroxyl groups. Finally, samples will be immersed in distilled water for up to two months to evaluate their dimensional stability in terms of thickness swelling and water absorption based on ASTM 1037 (2). A cost and benefit analysis of developing these wooden panels will be conducted under the current (short-term) and future (long-term) market situations. First, the availability of Eastern redcedar in Oklahoma will be estimated. Then, the study will focus on estimating the cost of producing the panels. Estimating the production costs will include assessing raw material costs (for example, some landowners may be willing to give the eastern redcedar trees away, and some may even be willing to pay for tree removal), transportation costs, capital requirements for building facilities, operating costs, and other factors. The current and future value of the newly developed wooden panels will be evaluated based on current and expected market prices of other comparable wood products. The co-PIs will also arrange visits to various wood products manufacturers in Oklahoma in search of industrial partners and market information. Finally, the study will provide the macroeconomic impact of developing Eastern redcedar-based panels on the overall Oklahoma economy.
Progress 10/01/16 to 09/30/17

Outputs
Target Audience:Landowners and wood-based panel manufacturers. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?One graduate student assisted some of the experiments of the study. Individual regular discussion sessions related to progress of the work were held with the Ph.D. student. Also one hourly undergraduate student was trained to run some of the tests of the experimental panels. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?As an agricultural crop, timber products rank third in value in Oklahoma behind wheat and hay. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is widely distributed in Oklahoma. The greatest area of expansion have been in the southwestern part of the state, characterized by an arid climate and rocky soils, and the northwestern part of the state, primarily open prairie land dissected by waterways. State biologists are now concerned that encroaching redcedar may someday take over the tall grass prairies in northern Oklahoma. Current acreage of Eastern redcedar in Oklahoma is estimated beyond ten million acres. Use of low-quality Eastern redcedar as a raw material in lumber manufacturing is not currently substantial due to its low value and the irregular growth pattern. Eastern redcedar is a problem to farmers and ranchers who often lose crop and pasture land to the species. The trees are generally considered a water-stealing, and space taking nuisance. Wood products industry in Oklahoma is characterized by a large number of small companies using rather labor-intensive operations to transform hardwoods such as oak into a various of wood-based products. If landowners make use of state and federal program to remove redcedar trees from their property, the costs of delivery inputs to a centralized panel product facility maybe only short-distance transportation cost. This project directly addresses the development of a green value-added panel products from under-utilized Eastern redcedar. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Properties of the experimental panels made with mixture of various ratios of particles from different species will be evaluated within the next reporting period. 

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? The main objective of the study was to determine both physical and mechanical properties of particleboard panels manufactured from Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.). Mixture of different percentages of silicon dioxide nano-particles, two percent of urea formaldehyde and modified starch was used as binder for the samples. Experimental panels in the form of three-layer configuration were made from the raw material at different density levels. Bending characteristics, namely modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, internal bonding strength as well as thickness swelling and water absorption of the samples were determined. Scientific objectives met : Particleboard panels using Eastern redcedar as raw material having nano-particles and low percent of urea formaldehyde were successfully manufactured. Basic properties of the samples were determined satisfactory. Significant results achieved, including major findings, developments, or conclusions: It appears that increased percentage of nanoparticle adversely influenced mechanical properties of the samples. The highest modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture values of the samples with 0.80 g/cm3 density level were found as 2,200 MPa, and 11.12 MPa, respectively. Since only two percent urea formaldehyde was used in the panels their formaldehyde emission was considerable low suggesting these panels are very environmentally friendly. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is commonly found in central and eastern in the US and one of the most widely distributed indigenous conifers in Oklahoma. This species is not very efficient for lumber manufacturing because of low-wood quality. Particleboard panels are generally produced with wood particles and binder. This product is used in the manufacture of furniture, cabinets, tables, flooring, kitchen tops, home constructions, and other applications. The majority of particleboard is generally manufactured using urea formaldehyde as a binder. This adhesive has many advantages such as low cost, ease of use under a wide variety of curing conditions, the fast reaction time in hot press, resistance to microorganisms and to abrasion, along with excellent thermal properties compared to other resins. However, formaldehyde emission is considered a dangerous substance and has been linked to human health problems for both short and long-term exposure. Using low percentage of formaldehyde has gained an increasing attention in wood composite industry as a binder due to its environmental friendly approach. In this study Eastern redcedar particles were dried to 2-3% moisture content in a laboratory type oven. Dried particles were classified into two particle sizes, namely fine and coarse, on 20 mesh and 60 mesh screens, respectively. Coarse particles were used for the core layer of the three-layer particleboard while the fine particles were used for the surface layers of the board. Panels with dimension of 400 mm by 400 mm were produced for the experiments. Formation of mats was performed into a mold followed by a pre-pressing using a hot press machine at a pressure of 5 MPa and a temperature 165ºC for 20 min. Then the panels were cooled and conditioned in a controlled room with a temperature of 20ºC and a relative humidity of 65% for several days before cutting them into test specimens. Within the perspective of this study such invasive under-utilized species is expected to be converted into environmentally friendly value-added product. Key outcomes and other accomplished realized: It appears that dimensional stability of the panels did not meet minimum requirements for the accepted standard. The thickness swelling values of the sample ranged from 28.88% to 47.58% as a result of 2 h and 24 h water soaking Panels had satisfactory modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture as well as internal bond strength. Overall properties of the panels had enhanced characteristics due to addition of one percent nano particles. 

Publications

Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: CHOTIKHUN, A. S.HIZIROGLU. 2017. Some Properties of Composite Panels Manufactured from Eastern Redcedar Using Modified Starch as a Binder. Journal of Natural Fibers. DOI:10.1080 /15440478.2016. 1240462.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: KARAMURI,S., S.HIZIROGLU, K.KALKAN. 2017. The Distribution and Role of Nanoclay in Lignocellulosic-Polymer Blends. The Royal Society of Chemistry, RSC Advances.7:19406-19416.DOI:10.1039/c7ra02082a.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: KETKAEW,S.P.KASEMSIRI, S.HIZIROGLU W.MONGKOLTHANARUK R.WANNASUTTA U.PONGSA, P.CHINDAPRASIRT. 2017. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil Content on Properties of Green Biocomposites Based on Cassava Starch and Sugarcane Bagasse for Bioactive Packaging. Journal of Polymer Environment. DOI 10.1007/s10924-017-0957-x.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: KANTASIRI,T. P.KASEMSIRI, U.PONGSA, S . HIZIROGLU. 2017.Properties of Lightweight Weight Concrete Containing Crumb Rubber Subjected to High Temperature. Key Engineering Materials.DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/ KEM.718.177.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: KETKAEW,S P.KASEMSIRI, U.PONGSA.S HIZIROGLU. 2017. Properties of Cassava Starch-Based Foam Composite Containing Sugarcane Fiber and Origanum vulgare L Essential Oil. Key Engineering Materials. DOI:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.718.21.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: HAZIR, E, H.KUCUK, S. HIZIROGLU. 2017. Optimization of Sanding Parameters Using Response Surface Methodology. Maderas. 19 (4): DOI:10:4067ISO718221X2017005000034.
Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2017 Citation: Aujchariya Chotikhun. Characterization of Particleboard from Eastern Redcedar Using Nano Particle Added Modified Starch as Binder. PhD dissertation. Oklahoma State University.

Progress 10/01/15 to 09/30/16

Outputs
Target Audience:Landowners and wood products manufacturers. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?One graduate student assisted some of the experiments of the study. Individual regular discussion sessions related to progress of the work were held with the graduate student. Also one hourly undergraduate student was trained to run some of the tests of the experimental panels. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?As an agricultural crop, timber products rank third in value in Oklahoma behind wheat and hay. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is widely distributed in Oklahoma. The greatest area of expansion have been in the southwestern part of the state, characterized by an arid climate and rocky soils, and the northwestern part of the state, primarily open prairie land dissected by waterways. State biologists are now concerned that encroaching redcedar may someday take over the tall grass prairies in northern Oklahoma. Current acreage of Eastern redcedar in Oklahoma is estimated beyond 9 million acres. Use of low-quality Eastern redcedar as a raw material in lumber manufacturing is not currently substantial due to its low value and the irregular growth pattern. Eastern redcedar is a problem to farmers and ranchers who often lose crop and pasture land to the species. The trees are generally considered a water-stealing, and space taking nuisance. Wood products industry in Oklahoma is characterized by a large number of small companies using rather labor-intensive operations to transform hardwoods such as oak into a various of wood-based products. If landowners make use of state and federal program to remove redcedar trees from their property, the costs of delivery inputs to a centralized panel product facility maybe only short-distance transportation cost. This project directly addressed the development of a green value-added structural panel products from under-utilized Eastern redcedar. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Properties of the experimental panels made with different ratios of nano particles will be evaluated within the next reporting period. 

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? The main objective of the study was to determine both physical and mechanical properties of particleboard panels manufactured from Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) added silisium oxide nano-particles, low percent of urea formaldehyde as binder. Experimental panels in the form of three-layer configuration were made from the raw material at different density levels. Bending characteristics, namely modulus of elastically, modulus of rupture, internal bonding strength in addition to dimensional stability of the samples were determined. Scientific objectives met : Experimental panels using Eastern redcedar as raw material having nano-particles and low percent of urea formaldehyde were successfully manufactured. Basic properties of the samples were determined satisfactory. Significant results achieved, including major findings, developments, or conclusions: The highest modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture values of the samples were found as 2,200 MPa, and 11.12 MPa, respectively for the samples with 0.80 g/cm3 density level. Formaldehyde emission of the samples was considerable low suggesting these panels are very environmentally friendly. However dimensional stability of the panels needs to be enhanced. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is commonly found in central and eastern in the US and one of the most widely distributed indigenous conifers in Oklahoma. This species is not very efficient for lumber manufacturing because of low-wood quality.Particleboard panels are generally produced with wood particles and binder. This product is used in the manufacture of furniture, cabinets, tables, flooring, kitchen tops, home constructions, and other applications. The majority of particleboard panels is generally manufactured using urea formaldehyde as a binder. This adhesive has many advantages such as low cost, ease of use under a wide variety of curing conditions, the fast reaction time in hot press, water solubility, low cure temperatures, resistance to microorganisms and to abrasion, along with excellent thermal properties compared to other resins. However, formaldehyde emission is considered a dangerous substance and has been linked to human health problems for both short and long-term exposure. Using low percentage of formaldehyde has gained an increasing attention in wood composite industry as a binder due to its environmental friendly approach. In this study Eastern redcedar particles were dried to 2-3% moisture content in a laboratory type oven. Dried particles were classified into two particle sizes, namely fine and coarse, on 20 mesh and 60 mesh screens, respectively. Coarse particles were used for the core layer of the three-layer particleboard while the fine particles were used for the surface layers of the board. Panels with dimension of 400 mm by 400 mm were produced for the experiments. Formation of mats was performed into a mold followed by a pre-pressing using a hot press machine at a pressure of 5 MPa and a temperature 165ºC for 20 min. Then the panels were cooled and conditioned in a controlled room with a temperature of 20ºC and a relative humidity of 65% for several days before cutting them into test specimens. Within the scope of this study such invasive under-utilized species is expected to be converted into environmentally friendly value-added product. Key outcomes and other accomplished realized: It appears that dimensional stability of the panels were unsatisfied and did not meet minimum requirements for the accepted standard. The thickness swelling values of the sample ranged from 28.88% to 47.58% as a result of 2 h and 24 h water soaking Panels had satisfactory modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture as well as internal bond strength. Overall properties of the panels had enhanced characteristics due to addition of nano particles. 

Publications

Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: CHOTIKHUN, A. S.HIZIROGLU. 2016. Measurement of Dimensional Stability of Heat Treated Southern Red Oak (Quercus falcate Michx.). Measurement. 87: 99-103.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: NASSER, R, M. SALEM , S. HIZIROGLU, H. AL-MEFARREJ, M.ALAM, I. AREF. 2016. Chemical Analysis of Different Parts of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Using Ultimate, Proximate and Thermo-Gravimetric Techniques for Energy Production. Energies. MDPI. Energies. MDPI. 9-374, Doi:10.3390/en 9050374 .
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: SULAIMAN, N.S, R. HASHIM, S. HIZIROGLU, M. H. MOHAMAD AMINI, O. SULAIMAN, M. E. SELAMAT. 2016. Rubberwood Particleboard Manufactured Using Epichlorohydrin-modified Rice Starch as a Binder. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology. 50 (2):329-338.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: CRAIGE,C.C, M.D. BUSER, R.S. FRAZIER, S. HIZIROGLU, R. HOLCOMB, R. HUHNKE. 2016. Conceptual Design of a Biofeedstock Supply Chain Model for Eastern Redcedar. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 121:12-124.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: BEKHTA P, P. LYUTYY, S. HIZIROGLU, G. ORTYNSKA. 2016. Properties of Composite Panels Made from Tetra-Pak and Polyethylene Waste Material. Journal of Polymers and the Environment. DOI 10. 1007 /s10924-016-0758-7.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: DULSANG, N., P.KASEMSIRI, P. POSI, S.HIZIROGLU, P.CHINDAPRASIRT. 2016. Characterization of an Environment Friendly Lightweight Concrete Containing Ethyl Vinyl Acetate Waste. Materials and Design. 96:350-356.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2016 Citation: AMINI MOHAMAD,M.H., R.HASHIM., N.S.SULAIMAN., S.HIZIROGLU., O.SULAIMAN., M.MOHAMED., S.N.SARMIN.,M.MASRI., M.A.SULAIMAN., M.B.ABU BAKAR. 2016. Effect of Urea Formaldehyde Addition to the Dimensional Stability of Particleboard Made Using Glutardialdehyde Modified Corn Starch as Binder with FT-IR Analysis. Materials Science Forum. Vol.840:108-111.

Progress 10/01/14 to 09/30/15

Outputs
Target Audience:Landowners and wood products manufacturers. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided?One graduate student assisted some of the experiments of the study. Individual regular discussion sessions related to progress of the work were held with the graduate student. Also one hourly undergraduate student was trained to run some of the tests of the experimental panels. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest?As an agricultural crop, timber products rank third in value in Oklahoma behind wheat and hay. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is widely distributed in Oklahoma. The greatest area of expansion have been in the southwestern part of the state, characterized by an arid climate and rocky soils, and the northwestern part of the state, primarily open prairie land dissected by waterways. State biologists are now concerned that encroaching redcedar may someday take over the tall grass prairies in northern Oklahoma. Current acreage of Eastern redcedar in Oklahoma is estimated beyond 9 million acres. Use of low-quality Eastern redcedar as a raw material in lumber manufacturing is not currently substantial due to its low value and the irregular growth pattern. Eastern redcedar is a problem to farmers and ranchers who often lose crop and pasture land to the species. The trees are generally considered a water-stealing, and space taking nuisance. Wood products industry in Oklahoma is characterized by a large number of small companies using rather labor-intensive operations to transform hardwoods such as oak into a various of wood-based products. If landowners make use of state and federal program to remove redcedar trees from their property, the costs of delivery inputs to a centralized panel product facility maybe only short-distance transportation cost. This project directly addressed the development of a green value-added structural panel products from under-utilized Eastern redcedar. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals?Properties of the experimental panels made with different ratios of starch and nano particles will be evaluated within the next reporting period. 

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? Major Activities completed: The objective of the study was to evaluate basic properties of particleboard panels manufactured from Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) using nano-particles, modified starch and low percent of urea formaldehyde as binder. Experimental panels in the form of three-layer configuration were made from the raw material at two density levels. Bending characteristics, namely modulus of elastically, modulus of rupture, internal bonding strength in addition to dimensional stability and surface roughness of the samples were determined. Scientific objectives met : Experimental panels using Eastern redcedar as raw material having nano-particle and modified starch were successfully manufactured. Basic properties of the samples were determined and found that they are satisfactory as compared to those of commercially made panels. Significant results achieved, including major findings, developments, or conclusions: The highest modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture values of the samples were found as 2,344.32 MPa, and 12.14 MPa, respectively for the samples with 0.80 g/cm3 density level. Both bending and internal bond values of the samples were comparable to those of commercially manufactured panels made from other species. Formaldehyde emission of the samples was considerable low suggesting these panels are very environmentally friendly. It appears that dimensional stability of the panels needs to be enhanced. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is commonly found in central and eastern in the US and one of the most widely distributed indigenous conifers in Oklahoma. This species is not very efficient for lumber manufacturing because of low-wood quality. The encroachment of eastern redcedar has brought several ecological concerns to farmers, ranchers and wildlife species, in case of decreasing ground water yield and an increased risk of wildfires. The demand for particleboard has recently increased a favorable market environment for Eastern redcedar products. Particleboard panels are generally produced with wood particles and binder. This product is used in the manufacture of furniture, cabinets, tables, flooring, kitchen tops, home constructions, and other applications. The majority of particleboard panels is generally manufactured using urea formaldehyde as a binder. This adhesive has many advantages such as low cost, ease of use under a wide variety of curing conditions, the fast reaction time in hot press, water solubility, low cure temperatures, resistance to microorganisms and to abrasion, along with excellent thermal properties compared to other resins. However, formaldehyde emission is considered a dangerous substance and has been linked to human health problems for both short and long-term exposure. Modified starch has gained an increasing attention in wood composite industry as a binder due to its environmental friendly approach. Starch can be produced from various plants such as corn, cassava, potato, and rice. Using modified starch can eliminate formaldehyde emission in panel manufacture. In this study Eastern redcedar particles were dried to 2-3% moisture content in a laboratory type oven. Dried particles were classified into two particle sizes, namely fine and coarse, on 20 mesh and 60 mesh screens, respectively. Coarse particles were used for the core layer of the three-layer particleboard while the fine particles were used for the surface layers of the board. Modified starch was mixed 2 % nan-particles, corn starch and glutardialdehyde, which is a colorless oily liquid organic compound and widely used as disinfector agent for medical equipment.. Initially corn starch powder was dissolved in distilled water with a temperature of 30 ºC before it was stirred and added 25% glutardialdehyde solution. Panels with dimension of 400 mm by 400 mm were produced for the experiments. Formation of mats was performed into a mold followed by a pre-pressing using a hot press machine at a pressure of 5 MPa and a temperature 165ºC for 20 min. Then the panels were cooled and conditioned in a controlled room with a temperature of 20ºC and a relative humidity of 65% for several days before cutting them into test specimens. Within the scope of this study such invasive under-utilized species is expected to be converted into environmentally friendly value-added product. Key outcomes and other accomplishments realized: Dimensional stability of the panels were unsatisfied and did not meet minimum requirements for the accepted standard. The thickness swelling values of the sample ranged from 26.88% to 37.58% as a result of 2 h and 24 h water soaking. The water absorption value also ranged from 68.69% to 86.44% for the same exposure time periods. The surface roughness measurements revealed that an average roughness value of 6.03 microns. It appears that modified corn starch of both density levels did not create a high level of densification on the surface layers with mixing urea formaldehyde. Panels had modulus of elasticity of 2,241.92 MPa, 2,344.32 MPa, modulus of rupture of 11.17 MPa, 12.14 MPa and internal bond strength as 0.57 MPa, 0.62 MPa for the panel with 0.70 g/cm3 and 0.80 g/cm3 density levels, respectively. Overall properties of the panels had enhanced characteristics due to addition of nano particles. Considering all properties above, modified starch with glutardialdehyde could have a potential to be used as green binder to manufacture wood based panels. 

Publications

Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: KARAMURI,S., S.HIZIROGLU., K.KALKAN. 2015. Thermoset-Crosslinked Lignocellulose: a Moldable Plant Biomass. American Chemical Society (ACS). Applied Materials and Interfaces. 7(12):6596-6604.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: OZDEMIR,T., S.HIZIROGLU., M. KOCAPINAR. 2015. Effect of Heartwood and Sapwood Ratio on Adhesion Strength of Finished Wood Species. Advances in Material Science and Engineering. Article ID 418618. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/418618.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: DILIK,T.,S.ERDINLER.,E.HAZIR.,H.KOC.,S.HIZIROGLU. 2015. Adhesion Strength of Wood-Based Composites Coated with Cellulosic and Polyurethane Paints. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering. Article ID 745675 http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/745675.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: SALLEH,M.K.,R.HASHIM.,O.SULAIMAN.,S.HIZIROGLU.,W.N.A. WAN NADHARI., N.A.KARIM., N.JUMHURI.,L.Z.PING ANG. 2015. Evaluation of Properties of Starch Based Adhesives and Particleboard Manufactured from them. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology. 29 (4) 319-336.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: HEGAZY, S., K. AHMED., S.HIZIROGLU. 2015. Oriented Strandboard Production from Water Treated Date Palm Fronds. Bioresources. 10 (1): 448-456.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2015 Citation: DILIK, T., S. HIZIROGLU,S. 2015. Some properties of Linoleum and Wood Laminated Flooring Panels with Magnesium Substrate. Bioresources. 10 (1):1667-1674.

Progress 10/01/13 to 09/30/14

Outputs
Target Audience: Wood products manufacturers, landowners, harvesters and wood plastic producers. Changes/Problems: Nothing Reported What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Two visiting professors and two graduate students assisted some of the experiments of the study. Individual regular discussion sessions related to progress of the work were held with the visiting professors. Also one hourly undergraduate students was trained to run some of the tests of the experimental panels. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Results have been disseminated through presentations, publications, landowner/business owners, and fact sheets. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? Ninty percent by weight and moldable composite by controlled crosslinking of Eastern redcedar wood microparticles by a thermoset adhesive will be manufactured in the next phase of this work. Thermoplastic materials are widely used for many applications including automobile industry and countless novelty items. Common use of plastics is attributable to their low cost and easy manufacturing process. A thermoplastic can be molten or softened at relatively low temperatures and subsequently molded or extruded into any shape. In particular, the technique of injection molding has revolutionized the plastics industry by many applications.Wood based products as natural alternative to plastics, have superior mechanical stiffness and strength. However, wood cannot be molded or extruded similar to plastics. Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) combine the mechanical strength of wood with the durability and resistance of plastics against environmental exposure and biological deterioration agents such as termites and fungi. In comparison with bulk wood, the stiffness and strength of current WPCs are still significantly poor. A possible improvement would be by replacement of the thermoplastic matrix with a thermoset polymer. Specifically, epoxy thermosets is expected providing extensive usage in dental fillings/prostheses, nanocomposites and superglues due to their simplicity, versatility and robustness of the epoxide crosslinking chemistry. 

Impacts
What was accomplished under these goals? This project addresses a major need to use underutilized invasive species as raw material for value-added panel manufacture and to test the properties of such panels to determine if they are similar to other panel products made from different species. Wood plastic composite (WPC) is a panel or lumber product made from recycled plastic and small wood particles or fibers. Such products are widely used in the USA for many applications including decking, roof tiles, playground equipment, picnic tables, fencing rails, window lineals and automotive components. Wood plastic composite samples manufactured with nano-clay added Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) particles. Three percent and six percent nano-clay was added to 40 percent wood particles and 60 percent high density polyethylene (HDPE). Dimensional and mechanical properties of the specimens were evaluated. Also behavior of Eastern redcedar wood as function of heat treatment which plays an important role in manufacture of composite panels was also evaluated. Experimental samples using Eastern redcedar as raw material and recycled plastic having nano-clay contents were successfully manufactured. Properties of the samples were tested and found that they all are comparable to those of commercially manufactured products using other wood species as raw material. Solid samples of Eastern redcedar were also exposed to heat treatment to evaluate their dimensional stability and determined that their shrinkage and swelling characteristics enhanced. The rate of WPC production increased substantially last 10 years as decking materials in terms of the market share. Wood plastic composites are relatively new products as compared to the long history of natural lumber or traditional wood composites, such as particleboard or fiberboard. The North American WPC market has reached almost one billion dollars in sales with an increase of 200 percent between 2001 and 2006 and it is expected that 20 percent annual growth will take place within the next decade. Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is considered an invasive species in Oklahoma affecting overall ecology and wildlife. Past studies evaluated properties of particleboard, structural type products and sandwich type panels made from Eastern redcedar and concluded that properties of such products are comparable to those commercially produced from other wood species. Eastern redcedar particles were screened to 40 mesh size, mixed in a blender with high density polyethylene (HDPE), nano-clay and commercially manufactured maleic anhydride polyethylene as a coupling agent to improve the adhesion between plastic and wood particles. Three percent and six percent nanoclay were added into the samples based on the total weight of the material to enhance dimensional stability of the samples. The mixture was fed into a conical counter rotating twin screw extruder before being used as raw material for injection molder to produce dogbone shape samples. Initial roughness measurements were taken on each sample employing stylus type equipment to evaluate surface roughness of the samples. The stylus profilometer, Hommel T-500 unit equipped with a skid type pick-up can determine two roughness parameters, namely average roughness and mean peak-to-valley height. Surface quality of control samples and those exposed to eight days water soaking was measured. Thickness and weight of the samples were also determined before and after soaking them in water at accuracy levels of 0.01 mm and 0.1 g, respectively. Water absorption of the control samples was 0.31 percent at the end of one day of water soaking test. Three percent and 6 percent clay added specimens had 0.28 percent and 0.18 percent for corresponding values. As a result of eight days water soaking, control samples and those made with 3 percent and 6 percent clay added specimens had 1.15 percent, 1.10 percent and 0.96 percent thickness swelling values, respectively. It seems that nano-clay enhanced the dimensional stability of the samples ranging from 4.5% to 19.79% compared with that of control samples. This study demonstrated that having nano-clay in the samples improved their thickness swelling. As a result of eight days water soaking, control samples had an average thickness swelling value of 0.59 percent while those samples with 3 percent and 6 percent nano-clay had 0.50 percent and 0.46 percent as corresponding values. Roughness of any kind of composite including WPC play an important role in further manufacturing steps such as finishing. Based on results from the stylus type equipment employed in this work, control samples had an average roughness value of 1.63 micron at the initial condition. Nano-clay in the samples slightly improved their surface roughness acting as a filler. Composites made with 3 percent and 6 percent nano-clay had 1.27 micron and 1.11 micron roughness values in dry condition. This suggests that nano-clay acts as a plasticizer, protecting distortion of surface layers of the samples due to water damage. Based on the findings in this experimental work it appears that Eastern reedcedar could have potential to be used as raw material to produce WPC with acceptable dimensional stability. Addition of limited amount of nano-clay into the samples further enhanced overall dimensional stability of the specimens. Overall mechanical properties of the samples were adversely influenced by increasing clay content in the samples. This study investigated some of the basic properties of WPC samples manufactured from Eastern redcedar. Physical properties of experimental samples were determined as satisfactory and comparable to those found in previous works. These results suggest that Eastern redcedar as an underutilized species could have a potential to manufacture such composite panels. In further studies it would be desirable to make panels with other type of nano-particles rather than clay so that mechanical characteristics of the specimens can also be enhanced. In addition to properties tested in this study linear expansion and hardness of such panels would be tested to have a better understanding of overall properties of the samples. 

Publications

Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2014 Citation: Karumuri, S, Kalkan, K, Hiziroglu, S. 2014. Wood Plastic Composite Made from Eastern Redcedar. Annaual Meeting of Forest Products Society. Quebec, Canada.Poster Presentation.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Korkut, S., H. I. Kes?k, S.H?z?roglu. 2014.An evaluation of properties of four heat treated wood species. Industrial Crops and Products. 60:60-65.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Salca, E. A., S.Hiziroglu. 2014. Evaluation of hardness and surface quality of different species as function of heat treatment. Materials and Design. 62:416-423.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Kaygin, B., H.K.Koc., S.Hiziroglu. 2014. Surface quality and hardness of Eastern redcedar as function of steaming. Journal of Wood Science. 60 (4):243-248.
Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Ramachandriya, K., M. Wilkins, O. Pardo-planas, H. K. Atiyeh, N. Dunford, S. Hiziroglu. 2014. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of eastern redcedar heartwood and sapwood using a novel size reduction technique. bioresource technology. 161:1-9.
Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Tasdemir, C. 2014. Application of lean inventory management to oriented strand board Manufacturing. Master Thesis. Oklahoma State University.
Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Tasdemir,C. S.Hiziroglu. 2014. Manufacturing Sandwich Type Panels from Eastern Redcedar and Southern Pine. Fact Sheet, www.fapc.biz , FAPC-188 2 p.
Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Hiziroglu, S., K.Kalkan, S.Karumuri. 2014. Dimensional Stability and Roughness of Wood Plastic Composite Material Made from Eastern Redcedar. Fact Sheet, www.fapc.biz , FAPC-190 2 p.

Publications
  • Type: Conference Papers and Presentations Status: Other Year Published: 2014 Citation: Karumuri, S, Kalkan, K, Hiziroglu, S. 2014. Wood Plastic Composite Made from Eastern Redcedar. Annaual Meeting of Forest Products Society. Quebec, Canada.Poster Presentation.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Korkut, S., H. I. Kes?k, S.H?z?roglu. 2014.An evaluation of properties of four heat treated wood species. Industrial Crops and Products. 60:60-65.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Salca, E. A., S.Hiziroglu. 2014. Evaluation of hardness and surface quality of different species as function of heat treatment. Materials and Design. 62:416-423.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Kaygin, B., H.K.Koc., S.Hiziroglu. 2014. Surface quality and hardness of Eastern redcedar as function of steaming. Journal of Wood Science. 60 (4):243-248.
  • Type: Journal Articles Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Ramachandriya, K., M. Wilkins, O. Pardo-planas, H. K. Atiyeh, N. Dunford, S. Hiziroglu. 2014. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of eastern redcedar heartwood and sapwood using a novel size reduction technique. bioresource technology. 161:1-9.
  • Type: Theses/Dissertations Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Tasdemir, C. 2014. Application of lean inventory management to oriented strand board Manufacturing. Master Thesis. Oklahoma State University.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Tasdemir,C. S.Hiziroglu. 2014. Manufacturing Sandwich Type Panels from Eastern Redcedar and Southern Pine. Fact Sheet, www.fapc.biz , FAPC-188 2 p.
  • Type: Other Status: Published Year Published: 2014 Citation: Hiziroglu, S., K.Kalkan, S.Karumuri. 2014. Dimensional Stability and Roughness of Wood Plastic Composite Material Made from Eastern Redcedar. Fact Sheet, www.fapc.biz , FAPC-190 2 p.
For further details log on website :
https://reeis.usda.gov/web/crisprojectpages/1000020-nano-based-wood-plastic-composites-manufactured-from-eastern-redcedar.html

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