Wednesday, 16 November 2016

Species richness of the understory woody vegetation in Japanese cedar plantations declines with increasing number of rotations

Published Date
Volume 21, Issue 6pp 291–299

Original Article
DOI: 10.1007/s10310-016-0537-2

Cite this article as: 
Igarashi, T., Masaki, T., Nagaike, T. et al. J For Res (2016) 21: 291. doi:10.1007/s10310-016-0537-2

Author
  • Tetsuya Igarashi
  • Takashi Masaki
  • Takuo Nagaike
  • Hiroshi Tanaka
Abstract

The possibility of restoring natural broadleaf forests may be decreased by the effects of plantation management, particularly in sites that undergo repeated rotation. We investigated the following two working hypotheses about the effects of repeated plantation of conifers on the natural regeneration of woody saplings in cool-temperate Japanese cedar plantations: (1) that repeated plantation of conifers decreases sapling species richness, and (2) that repeated plantation of conifers changes sapling species compositions. Our result supported the first hypothesis, because species richness was significantly lower in second-rotation plantations than in first-rotation plantations. The second hypothesis was not supported, because no significant or substantial differences in species composition were observed between plantations with different numbers of rotations. However, the abundance of tree (nonshrub) and gravity-dispersed species decreased after the second rotation of large saplings, albeit not those of small saplings, suggesting that response to repeated rotation depended on sapling size. Our results suggest that it is important to consider factors affecting the maintenance of a species in the plantations, such as distance from natural forests and seed sources, to minimize the effects of repeated plantation.

References

  1. Bremer LL, Farley KA (2010) Does plantation forestry restore biodiversity or create green deserts? A synthesis of the effects of land-use transitions on plant species richness. Biodivers Conserv 19:3893–3915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brockerhoff EG, Jactel H, Parrotta JA, Quine CP, Sayer J (2008) Plantation forests and biodiversity: oxymoron or opportunity? Biodivers Conserv 17:925–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brown ND, Curtis T, Adams EC (2015) Effects of clear-felling versus gradual removal of conifer trees on the survival of understorey plants during the restoration of ancient woodlands. For Ecol Manag 348:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. FAO (2010) Global forest resources assessment 2010 key findings. Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome
  5. Frazer GW, Canham CD, Lertzman KPS (1999) Gap Light Analyzer (GLA), version 2.0 imaging software to extract canopy structure and gap light transmission from true-colour fisheye photographs, users manual and program documentation. Millbrook, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Fukamachi K, Iida S, Nakashizuka T (1996) Landscape patterns and plant species diversity of forest reserves in the Kanto region, Japan. Vegetation 124:107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gonzales RS, Nakashizuka T (2010) Broad-leaf species composition in Cryptomeria japonicaplantations with respect to distance from natural forest. For Ecol Manag 259:2133–2140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Iida S, Nakashizuka T (1995) Forest fragmentation and its effect on species diversity in sub-urban coppice forests in Japan. For Ecol Manag 73:197–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ishii HT, Tanabe S, Hiura T (2004) Exploring the relationships among canopy structure, stand productivity, and biodiversity of temperature forest ecosystems. For ScI 50(3):342–355Google Scholar
  10. Ito H, Hino T (2007) Dwarf bamboo as an ecological filter for forest regeneration. Ecol Res 22:706–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ito S, Nakagawa K, Buckley GP, Nogami K (2003) Species richness in sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations in southeastern Kyushu, Japan: the effects of stand type and age on understory trees and shrubs. J For Res 8:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Japan Forestry Agency (2011) Chapter III: Forest management. In: The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan (ed) Annual report on trends of forest and forestry. Annual Report Group Policy Planning Division, Forestry Agency Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries, Tokyo, pp 16–19
  13. Jeffries SB, Wentworth TR, Allen HL (2010) Long-term effects of establishment practices on plant communities across successive rotations in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation. For Ecol Manag 260:1548–1556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kelty MJ (2006) The role of species mixtures in plantation forestry. For Ecol Manag 233:195–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kitamura S, Murata G (1980) Colored illustrations of herbaceous plants of Japan (Choripetalae). Hoikusya, Osaka (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  16. Kitamura S, Okamoto S (1959) Colored illustrations of trees and shrubs of Japan. Hoikusya, Osaka (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  17. Kitamura S, Murata G, Koyama T (1974) Colored illustrations of herbaceous plants of Japan (Monocotyledoneae). Hoikusya, Osaka (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  18. Kitamura S, Murata G, Hori M (1978) Colored illustrations of herbaceous plants of Japan (Sympetalae). Hoikusya, Osaka (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  19. Masaki T, Suzuki W, Niiyama K, Iida S, Tanaka H, Nakashizuka T (1992) Community structure of a species-rich temperate forest, Ogawa Forest Reserve, central Japan. Vegetation 98:97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Masaki T, Ohta T, Sugita H, Oohara H, Otani T, Nagaike T, Nakamura S (2004) Structure and dynamics of tree populations within unsuccessful conifer plantations near the Shirakami Mountains, a snowy region of Japan. For Ecol Manag 194:389–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McCune B, Grace JB, Urban DL (2002) Analysis of ecological communities, structural equation modeling. MjM Software Design, Gleneden BeachGoogle Scholar
  22. Miyamoto A, Sano M, Tanaka H, Niiyama K (2011) Changes in forest resource utilization and forest landscapes in the southern Abukuma Mountains, Japan during the twentieth century. J For Res 16:87–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mizoguchi Y, Morisawa T, Ohtani Y (2002) Climate in Ogawa Forest Reserve. In: Nakashizuka T, Matsumoto Y (eds) Diversity and interaction in a temperate forest community: Ogawa Forest Reserve of Japan. Springer, Tokyo, pp 11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nagaike T (2002) Differences in plant species diversity between conifer (Larix kaempferi) plantations and broad-leaved (Quercus crispula) secondary forests in central Japan. For Ecol Manag 168:111–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nagaike T (2012) Review of plant species diversity in managed forests in Japan. ISRN Forestry 629523:7
  26. Nagaike T, Hayashi A, Kubo M, Abe M, Arai N (2006) Plant species diversity in a managed forest landscape composed of Larix kaempferi plantations and abandoned coppice forests in central Japan. For Sci 52(3):324–332Google Scholar
  27. Nagaike T, Fujita T, Dejima S, Chino T, Matsuzaki S, Takanose Y, Takahashi K (2012) Interactive influences of distance from seed source and management practices on tree species composition in conifer plantations. For Ecol Manag 283:48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nakashizuka T, Iida S, Masaki T, Shibata M, Tanaka H (1995) Evaluating increased fitness through dispersal: a comparative study on tree populations in a temperate forest, Japan. Écoscience 2(3):245–251Google Scholar
  29. Niinemets U, Valladares F (2006) Tolerance to shade, drought, and waterlogging of temperate Northern hemisphere trees and shrubs. Ecol Monogr 76(4):521–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Friendly M, Kindt R, Legendre P, McGlinn D, Minchin PR, O’Hara RB, Simpson GL, Solums P, Henry M, Stevens H, Szoecs E, Wagner H (2016) vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 2.4-0. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/vegan/index.html. Accessed 17 Aug 2016
  31. R Development Core Team (2016) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/. Accessed 17 Aug 2016
  32. Suzuki W (2002) Forest vegetation in and around Ogawa Forest Reserve in relation to human impact. In: Nakashizuka T, Matsumoto Y (eds) Diversity and interaction in a temperate forest community: Ogawa Forest Reserve of Japan. Ecological studies. Springer, Tokyo, pp 27–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Takafumi H, Hiura T (2009) Effects of disturbance history and environmental factors on the diversity and productivity of understory vegetation in a cool-temperate forest in Japan. For Ecol Manag 257:843–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tanaka H, Nakashizuka T (1997) Fifteen years of canopy dynamics analyzed by aerial photographs in a temperate deciduous forest, Japan. Ecology 78:612–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Turner MG, Baker WL, Peterson CJ, Peer RK (1998) Factors influencing succession: lessons from large, infrequent natural disturbances. Ecosystems 1:511–523
  36. Yamagawa H, Ito S, Nakao T (2007) Edge effects from a natural evergreen broadleaved forest patch on advanced regeneration and natural forest recovery after clear-cutting of a sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation. Jpn J For Environ 49(2):111–122 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  37. Yamagawa H, Ito S, Nakao T (2010) Restoration of semi-natural forest after clearcutting of conifer plantations in Japan. Landsc Ecol Eng 6:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yoshinaga S, Takahashi M, Aizawa S (2002) Landforms and soil characteristics in Ogawa Forest Reserve. In: Nakashizuka T, Matsumoto Y (eds) Diversity and interaction in a temperate forest community: Ogawa Forest Reserve of Japan. Ecological studies. Springer, Tokyo, pp 19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar

For further details log on website :
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10310-016-0540-7

No comments:

Post a Comment