Blog List

Thursday, 24 November 2016

Effects of stone-walled terracing and historical forest disturbances on revegetation processes after the abandonment of mountain slope uses on the Yura Peninsula, southwestern Japan

Published Date
Volume 20, Issue 1pp 24–34

Original Article
DOI: 10.1007/s10310-014-0471-0

Cite this article as: 
Tokuoka, Y. & Hashigoe, K. J For Res (2015) 20: 24. doi:10.1007/s10310-014-0471-0


Abandonment of traditional land uses has become an ecosystem management concern in many agricultural landscapes. In this study, we investigated the reforested vegetation about half a century after the abandonment of mountain slopes used for terraced fields and wood production on the Yura Peninsula, Ehime Prefecture, southwestern Japan. Multivariate analyses of species composition indicated that, although many endozoochorous evergreen trees were common on the mountain slopes, fern species adapted to inhabiting the stone-wall structures (e.g., Cyrtomium falcatumMicrolepia strigosa, and Asplenium incisum) and common weed species of arable land occurred significantly more frequently in former stone-walled terraced fields than in former unwalled terraced fields and secondary forests. Tree layer composition was influenced by the forest area around the abandoned terraced fields. Moreover, historically less disturbed forests in the southwestern part of the peninsula were core habitats for regionally rare species, such as Jasminanthes mucronataFirmiana simplex, and Ardisia sieboldii, and some of those species became established within neighboring abandoned terraced fields. These results indicate that land-use legacies, especially stone-walled terracing and historical forest disturbances, influence the revegetation processes of abandoned mountain slopes in warm-temperate coastal areas.


  1. Anderson MJ (2001) A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecol 26:32–46Google Scholar
  2. Arita H, Ohkuro T (2007) A maintenance system aimed to control woody vegetation of abandoned fields: study based on a survey of Ohshima-area, Jouetsu-shi, Niigata, Japan. Trans Jpn Soc Irrig Drain Rural Eng 249:255–260 (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  3. Borcard D, Legendre P (2002) All-scale spatial analysis of ecological data by means of principal coordinates of neighbor matrices. Ecol Model 153:51–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Braun-Blanquet J (1964) Pflanzensoziologie. Grundzüge der Vegetationskunde, Springer, ViennaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chibaken-Shiryou-Kenkyuzaidan (2003) Chibaken-no-shizenshi. 4. Chibaken-shokubutsushi [Natural source book of Chiba Prefecture. 4. Flora of Chiba Prefecture]. Chibanippousha, Chiba (in Japanese)
  6. Collier MJ (2013) Field boundary stone walls as exemplars of ‘novel’ ecosystems. Landsc Res 38:141–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cramer VA, Hobbs RJ, Standish RJ (2008) What’s new about old fields? Land abandonment and ecosystem assembly. Trends Ecol Evol 23:104–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Daniel H, Lecamp E (2004) Distribution of three indigenous fern species along a rural-urban gradient in the city of Angers, France. Urban For Urban Green 3:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dufrene M, Legendre P (1997) Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. Ecol Monogr 67:345–366Google Scholar
  10. Faith DP, Minchin PR, Belbin L (1987) Compositional dissimilarity as a robust measure of ecological distance. Vegetatio 69:57–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Foster DR, Orwig DA, McLachlan JS (1996) Ecological and conservation insights from reconstructive studies of temperate old-growth forests. Trends Ecol Evol 11:419–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Foster D, Swanson F, Aber J, Burke I, Brokaw N, Tilman D, Knapp A (2003) The importance of land-use legacies to ecology and conservation. Bioscience 53:77–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Harada M (1994) Yura-Hantou [Yura Peninsula]. Atlas-shuppan, Matsuyama (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  14. Hattori T, Ishida H, Hashimoto Y, Minamiyama N, Tamura K, Asami K (2004) Comparison between mature phase and gap phase of lucidophyllous forest with regard to species composition and species richness. Jpn J Ecol 51:11–24 (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  15. Hattori T, Minamiyama N, Kuroda A (2012) Phytosociological system of the natural lucidophyllous forests in Japan. Hum Nat 23:1–29 (in Japanese with English summary)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hobbs RJ, Walker LR (2007) Old field succession: development of concepts. In: Cramer VA, Hobbs RJ (eds) Old fields. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 17–30Google Scholar
  17. Hobbs RJ, Higgs E, Harris JA (2009) Novel ecosystems: implications for conservation and restoration. Trends Ecol Evol 24:599–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Iwatsuki K (1999) Ferns and fern allies of Japan. Heibonsha, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  19. Kuroda A, Hattori T (2008) Development of pteridophyte community in levees protected by wooden blocks and its contribution to revegetation. Landsc Res Jpn 71:581–584 (in Japanese with English summary)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kuroda A, Sawada Y, Kodate S, Hattori T (2009) Species composition and structure of plantation forest understory modified by slope protection: establishment of terrestrial pteridophytes and factors promoting their growth. Jpn J Conserv Ecol 14:55–65 (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  21. Lawson D, Inouye RS, Huntly N, Carson WP (1999) Patterns of woody plant abundance, recruitment, mortality, and growth in a 65 year chronosequence of old fields. Plant Ecol 145:267–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Legendre P, Legendre L (1998) Numerical ecology, 2nd English edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam
  23. Matsumoto S (2003) Species ecological study on reproductive systems and speciation of Cyromium falcatum complex (Dryopteridaceae) in Japanese archipelago. Ann Tsukuba Bot Gard 22:1–141Google Scholar
  24. Meiners SJ, Pickett STA, Handel SN (2002) Probability of tree seedling establishment changes across a forest–old field edge gradient. Am J Bot 89:446–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan (2011) Census of agriculture and forestry. Accessed 27 December 2011
  26. Miyamoto H (2006) Danbata-kara-no-kotodzute (Messages from terraced fields). Soufusha, Matsuyama (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  27. Miyawaki A, Okuda S, Fujiwara R (1994) Handbook of Japanese vegetation. Shibundo, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  28. Osawa K (1953) Uchiumi-sonshi-jyokan (The history of Uchiumi-village. Volume 1). Ogami Insatsusho, Yawatahama (in Japanese)
  29. R Development Core Team (2013) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna
  30. Sato T, Nakata M (2008) Factors affecting forest formation in abandoned terraced paddy fields in a mountainous region. J Jpn For Soc 90:364–371 (in Japanese with English summary)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tarolli P, Preti F, Romano N (2014) Terraced landscapes: from an old best practice to a potential hazard for soil degradation due to land abandonment. Anthropocene. doi:10.1016/j.ancene.2014.03.002
  32. Tokuoka Y, Ohigashi K, Nakagoshi N (2011) Limitations on tree seedling establishment across ecotones between abandoned fields and adjacent broad-leaved forests in eastern Japan. Plant Ecol 212:923–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Uchiumi-sonshi-hensan-iinkai (2004) Shintei-Uchiumi-sonshi (The history of Uchiumi village: new edition). Gyousei Co. Shikoku branch, Matsuyama (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  34. Uehara K (1961) Illustrated encyclopedia of trees, vol II. Ariake Shobou, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  35. Wakamori T (1961) Uwa-chitai-no-minzoku (Folklore of Uwa region). Yoshikawakoubunkan, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  36. Yamada K (1952) The study of terraced fields in the southern part of Ehime prefecture. Jpn J Hum Geogr 5:392–410 (in Japanese with English summary)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yamagawa H, Ito S, Nakao T (2007) Edge effects from a natural evergreen broadleaved forest patch on advanced regeneration and natural forest recovery after clear-cutting of a sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation. Jpn Soc For Environ 49:111–122Google Scholar
  38. Yamagawa H, Ito S, Nakao T (2013) Seed dispersal in clear-cut stands adjacent to lucidophyllous forest in 1 to 6 years after clear-cut. Jpn J Ecol 63:219–228Google Scholar
  39. Yamanaka T (1971) The forest vegetation in southwestern Shikoku. Kochi-daigaku-gakujyutsu-kenkyu-houkoku-shizenhen 19:17–42 (in Japanese with English summary)

For further details log on website :

No comments:

Post a Comment

Mangrove Forest Management & Restoration

The Sabah Forestry Department has conserved most if not all Mangrove Forests under Class V for marine life conservation and as a natural me...