Thursday, 24 November 2016

Improving the germination of somatic embryos of Picea morrisonicola Hayata: effects of cold storage and partial drying

Published Date
Volume 20, Issue 1pp 114–124

Original Article
DOI: 10.1007/s10310-014-0445-2

Cite this article as: 
Liao, Y.K. & Juan, IP. J For Res (2015) 20: 114. doi:10.1007/s10310-014-0445-2


Mature somatic embryos (SEs) of Taiwan spruce (Picea morrisonicola Hay.) were harvested from embryogenic tissues incubated on a filter paper laid on an abscisic acid (ABA)-containing medium. The effects of cold storage and partial drying on embryo germination and on reduction of embryo ABA content were determined. Percentage germination was low (<10 %) and hyperhydricity was high (>86.8 %) for mature SEs (control). Both cold storage and partial drying significantly reduced this physiological abnormality. Germination increased to 49.1 % for SEs that received cold-storage treatment, and their ABA content was reduced to a trace amount (2.4 ± 1.1 µg/g dw). Germination increased to 58.1 % for SEs partially dried for 7 days, and the ABA content was relatively high (62.8 ± 21.7 µg/g dw). Hyperhydricity-induced failure to germinate among SEs containing low levels of ABA is discussed. Histological study revealed vigorous differentiation in the root apical meristem of SE during partial drying. This advanced development also accounted for the enhanced germination performance compared with other treatments. A combination treatment (partial drying and cold storage) increased percentage germination even further (69.9 %) and more effectively reduced hyperhydricity (18.7 %) during SE germination.

  1. Anderson DR (1990) Procedures for improved somatic embryo maturation in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Ph. D. Thesis. Department of Botany, North Carolina State University, Raleigh
  2. Andrade GM, Merkle SA (2005) Enhancement of American chestnut somatic seedling production. Plant Cell Rep 24:326–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Becwar MR, Noland TL, Wyckoff JL (1989) Maturation, germination, and conversion of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) somatic embryos to plants. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 25:575–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Capuana M, Petrini G, Di Marco A, Giannini R (2007) Plant regeneration of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) by somatic embryogenesis. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 43:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carneros E, Celestino C, Klimaszewska K, Park Y-S, Toribio M, Bonga JM (2009) Plant regeneration in Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) by somatic embryogenesis. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 98:165–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carrier DJ, Bock CA, Cunningham JE, Cyr DR, Dunstan DI (1997) (+)-ABA content and lipid deposition in interior spruce somatic embryos. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 33:236–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carrier DJ, Kendall EJ, Bock CA, Cunningham JE, Dunstan DI (1999) Water content, lipid deposition, and (+)-abscisic acid content in developing white spruce seeds. J Exp Bot 50:1359–1364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen SY, Chien C-T, Chung J-D, Yang Y-S, Kuo S-R (2007) Dormancy-break and germination in seeds of Prunus campanulata (Rosaceae): role of covering layers and changes in concentration of abscisic acid and gibberellins. Seed Sci Res 17:21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen SY, Kuo SR, Chien C-T (2008) Roles of gibberellins and abscisic acid in dormancy and germination of red bayberry (Myrica rubra) seeds. Tree Physiol 28:1431–1439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Micco V, Aronne G (2007) Combined histochemistry and autofluorescence for identifying lignin distribution in cell walls. Biotech Histochem 82:209–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dunstan DI, Bethune TD, Abrams SR (1991) Racemic abscisic acid and abscisyl alcohol promote maturation of white spruce (Picea glauca) somatic embryos. Plant Sci 76:219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feurtado JA, Ambrose SJ, Culter AJ, Ross ARS, Abrams SR, Kermode AR (2004) Dormancy termination of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. Ex D. Don) seeds is associated with changes in abscisic acid metabolism. Planta 218:630–639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Find JI (1997) Changes in endogenous ABA levels in developing somatic embryos of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in relation to maturation medium, desiccation and germination. Plant Sci 128:75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garciarrubio A, Legaria JP, Covarrubias AA (1997) Abscisic acid inhibits germination of mature Arabidopsis seeds by limiting the availability of energy and nutrients. Planta 203:182–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hakman I, Stabel P, Engstrom P, Eriksson T (1990) Storage protein accumulation during zygotic and somatic embryo development in Picea abies (Norway spruce). Physiol Plant 80:441–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harry IS, Thorpe TA (1991) Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from mature zygotic embryos of red spruce. Bot Gaz 152:446–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hristoforoglu K, Schmidt J, Bolhar-Nordenkampf H (1995) Development and germination of Abies alba somatic embryos. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 40:277–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jain SM, Newton RJ, Soltes EJ (1988) Enhancement of somatic embryogenesis in Norway spruce (Picea abies L.). Theor Appl Genet 76:501–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jones NB, van Staden J (2001) Improved somatic embryo production from embryogenic tissue of Pinus patula. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 37:543–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jung M-J, Liao G-I, Kuoh C-S (2005) Phryma leptostachya (Phrymaceae), a new family record in Taiwan. Bot Bull Acad Sin 46:239–244Google Scholar
  21. Keinonen-Mettala K, Jalonen P, Eurola P, von Arnold S, von Weissenberg K (1996) Somatic embryogenesis of Pinus sylvestris. Scand J For Res 11:242–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kim YW, Moon HK (2007a) Enhancement of somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 88:241–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kim YW, Moon HK (2007b) Regeneration of plant by somatic embryogenesis in Pinus rigida × P. taeda. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 43:335–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Klimaszewska K, Park Y-S, Overton C, Maceacheron I, Bonga JM (2001) Optimized somatic embryogenesis in Pinus strobus L. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 37:392–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kong L, Yeung EC (1992) Development of white spruce somatic embryos: II. Continual shoot meristem development during germination. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 28:125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kong L, Yeung EC (1994) Effects of ethylene and ethylene inhibitors on white spruce somatic embryo maturation. Plant Sci 104:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Krajnakova J, Haggman H, Gomory D (2009) Effects of sucrose concentration, polyethylene glycol and activated charcoal on maturation and regeneration of Abies cephalonica somatic embryos. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 96:251–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kuo PC (1989) Silviculture of important trees. Maw Chang Book Co. Ltd., Taipei (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  29. Lelu MA, Label P (1994) Changes in the levels of abscisic acid and its glucose ester conjugate during maturation of hybrid larch (Larix × leptoeuropaea) somatic embryos, in relation to germination and plantlet recovery. Physiol Plant 92:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lelu MA, Bastien C, Klimaszewska K, Charest PJ (1994) An improved method for somatic plantlet production in hybrid larch (Larix × leptoeuropaea): Part 2. Control of germination and plantlet development. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 36:117–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lelu MA, Bastien C, Drugeault A, Gouez ML, Klimaszewska K (1999) Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet development in Pinus sylvestris and Pinus pinaster on medium with and without growth regulators. Physiol Plant 105:719–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Liao YK (1999) Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration in Picea morrisonicolaHayata. Q J Chin For 32:161–170 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  33. Liao YK, Amerson HV (1995) Slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) somatic embryogenesis II. Maturation of somatic embryos and plant regeneration. New For 10:165–182Google Scholar
  34. Liao YK, Kung HC (2001) Using filter paper pad incorporated into embryogenic suspension culture to achieve somatic embryo production in Picea morrisonicola Hayata. Q J Chin For 34:441–451 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  35. Majada JP, Sierra MI, Sanchez-Tames R (2001) Air exchange rate affects the in vitro developed leaf cuticle of carnation. Sci Hort 87:121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Montalban IA, De Diego N, Moncalean P (2010) Bottlenecks in Pinus radiata somatic embryogenesis: improving maturation and germination. Trees 24:1061–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nakayama M, Koshioka M, Matsui H, Ohara H, Mander LN, Leitch SK, Twitchin B, Kraft-Klaunzer P, Pharis RP, Yokota T (2001) Endogenous gibberellins in immature seeds of Prunus persica L.: identification of GA118, GA119, GA120, GA121, GA122 and GA126. Phytochemistry 57:749–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ni B-R, Bradford KJ (1993) Germination and dormancy of abscisic acid- and gibberellin-deficient mutant tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seeds. Plant Physiol 101:607–617PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Olmos E, Hellin E (1998) Ultrastructural differences of hyperhydric and normal leaves from regenerated carnation plants. Sci Hort 75:91–101fCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pond SE, von Aderkas P, Bonga JM (2002) Improving tolerance of somatic embryos of Picea glauca to flash desiccation with a cold treatment (desiccation after cold acclimation). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 38:334–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pullman GS, Johnson S (2009) Osmotic measurements in whole megagametophytes and embryos of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) during seed development. Tree Physiol 29:819–827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ramarosandratana A, Harvengt L, Bouvet A, Calvayrac R, Paques M (2001) Influence of the embryonal-suspensor mass (ESM) sampling on development and proliferation of maritime pine somatic embryos. Plant Sci 160:473–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Roberts DR (1991) Abscisic acid and mannitol promote early development, maturation and storage protein accumulation in somatic embryos of interior spruce. Physiol Plant 83:247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Roberts DR, Flinn BS, Webb DT, Webster FB, Sutton BCS (1990a) Abscisic acid and indole-3-butyric acid regulation of maturation and accumulation of storage proteins in somatic embryos of interior spruce. Physiol Plant 78:355–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Roberts DR, Sutton BCS, Flinn BS (1990b) Synchronous and high frequency germination of interior spruce somatic embryos following partial drying at high relative humidity. Can J Bot 68:1086–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Salajova T, Jasik J, Kormutak A, Salaj J, Hakman I (1996) Embryogenic culture initiation and somatic embryo development in hybrid firs (Abies alba × Abies cephalonica, and Abies alba × Abies numidica). Plant Cell Rep 15:527–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Stasolla C, Yeung EC (2001) Ascorbic acid metabolism during white spruce somatic embryo maturation and germination. Physiol Plant 111:196–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stasolla C, Yeung EC (2003) Recent advances in conifer somatic embryogenesis: improving somatic embryo quality. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 74:15–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Stasolla C, Yeung EC (2006) Endogenous ascorbic acid modulates meristem reactivation in white spruce somatic embryos and affects thymidine and uridine metabolism. Tree Physiol 26:1197–1206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stasolla C, Loukanina N, Ashihara H, Yeung EC, Thorpe TA (2001) Purine and pyrimidine metabolism during the partial-drying treatment of white spruce (Picea glauca) somatic embryos. Physiol Plant 111:93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stasolla C, Kong L, Yeung EC, Thorpe TA (2002) Maturation of somatic embryos in conifers: morphogenesis, physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 38:93–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. von Arnold S, Hakman I (1988) Regulation of somatic embryo development in Picea abies by abscisic acid (ABA). J Plant Physiol 132:164–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar

For further details log on website :

No comments:

Post a Comment