Monday, 14 November 2016

Transformation of Picea Species

Published Date
Volume 66 of the series Forestry Sciences pp 105-118

  • Author

  • D. H. Clapham
  • R. J. Newton
  • S. Sen
  • S. von Arnold

  • Abstract

    The genus Picea includes about 40 species of trees which are largely restricted to the cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere, many of them in China. The wood of Piceaspecies is strong for its weight, moderately long fibered but slightly resinous, and of primary importance in the manufacture of pulp and paper and for sawnwood (timber). P. abies (Norway spruce), is, together with Pinus sylvestris, the most important European economic forest tree species, used for pulp and timber. It is native from the Pyrenees to Russia and from Lapland to the Balkans; in Russia it merges into P. obovata. It is extensively planted in N. Europe. In North America, the important economic species of Picea are P. glauca, (white spruce), which grows across Canada and northern USA, widely used for pulp and timber; P. mariana (black spruce) with a similar distribution but growing best on wet sites; P engelmanii, which grows in the western mountains from British Colombia, where it hybridizes with P. glauca, to New Mexico, used for timber; P. sitchensis (Sitka spruce), a coastal species from Alaska to California and also grown extensively in Britain and Denmark, used for pulp and timber; and P. rubens (red spruce), closely related to P. mariana but with a narrow Eastern distribution from Nova Scotia to Georgia. Several Picea species are used as park and garden trees and P. abies is a popular Christmas tree in Scandinavia and elsewhere; (see further Anon 1986, Harlow et al. 1996, Attree et al. 1991, Thompson 1992).


    1. Anon, (1986) Information reports digest, Can. For. Serv7, 21–24
    2. Aronen, T.S., Nikkanen, T.O., and Häggman, H.M. (1998) Compatibility of different pollination techniques with microprojectile bombardment of Norway spruce and Scots pine pollen, Can. J. For. Res28, 7986.CrossRef
    3. Attree, S.M., Bekkaoui, F., Dunstan, D.I., and Fowke, L.C. (1987) Regeneration of somatic embryos from protoplasts isolated from an embryogenic suspension culture of white spruce (Picea glauca)Plant Cell Rep6, 480–483.
    4. Attree, S.M., Dunstan D.I., and Fowke, L.C. (1989) Plantlet regeneration from embryogenic protoplasts of white spruce (Picea glauca)Bio/fechnol7, 1060–1062.
    5. Attree, S.M., Dunstan D.I., and Fowke, L.C. (1991) Picea glauca (Moench) (white spruce) and Picea mariana (Mill) black spruce), in Y.P.S. Bajaj (ed.), Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, Vol 16, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 423–445.
    6. Bajaj, Y.P.S. (1986) Biotechnology of tree improvement for rapid propagation and biomass energy production, in Y.P.S. Bajaj (ed.), Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, Vol. 1, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 1–23.
    7. Bekkaoui, F., Pilon, M., Laine, E., Raju, D.S.S., Crosby, W.L., and Dunstan, D.I. (1988) Transient gene expression in electroporated Picea glauca protoplasts, Plant Cell Rep7, 481–484.CrossRef
    8. Bekkaoui, F., Datla, R.S.S., Pilon, M., Tautorus, T. E., Crosby, W. L., and Dunstan, D. I. (1990) The effects of promoter on transient expression in conifer cell lines, Theor. Appl. Genet79, 353–359.CrossRef
    9. Bommineni, V.R., Chibbar, R.N., Datla, R.S.S., and Tsang, E.W.T. (1993) Transformation of white spruce (Picea glauca) somatic embryos by microprojectile bombardment, Plant Cell Rep 13, 17–23.CrossRef
    10. Bommineni, V.R., Datla, R.S.S., and Tsang, E.W.T. (1994) Expression of gus in somatic embryo cultures of black spruce after microprojectile bombardment, J. Exp. Bot45, 491–495.CrossRef
    11. Bommineni, V.R., Chibbar, R.N., Bethune, T.D., Tsang, E.W.T., and Dunstan, D.I. (1997) The sensitivity of transgenic spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) cotyledonary somatic embryos and somatic seedlings to kanamycin selection, Transgen. Res6, 123–131.CrossRef
    12. Bommineni, V.R., Bethune, T.D., Hull, K.L., and Dunstan, D.I. (1998) Expression of uidA under regulation of the ABA-inducible wheat Em promoter in transgenic white spruce somatic embryos, J. Plant Physiol152, 455–462.CrossRef
    13. Chalupa, V. (1985) Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration from cultured immature and mature embryos of Picea abies (L.) Karst., Commun. Inst. For. Cech14, 57–63.
    14. Charest, P.J., Caléro, N. Lachance, D., Datla, R.S.S., Duchesne, L.C. and Tsang, E.W.T. (1993) Microprojectile-DNA delivery in conifer species: Factors affecting assessment of transient gene expression using the ß-glucuronidase reporter gene, Plant Cell Rep12, 189–193.
    15. Charest, P.J., Devantier, Y., and Lachance, D. (1996) Stable genetic transformation of Picea mariana (black spruce) via particle bombardment, In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol.-Plant 32, 91–99.CrossRef
    16. Cheliak, W.M. and Rogers, D.L. (1990) Integrating biotechnology into tree improvement programs, Can. J. For. Res20, 452–463.CrossRef
    17. Chen, L., Marmey, P., Taylor, N.J., Brizard, J.-P., Espinoza, C., D’Cruz, P., Huet, H., Zhang, S., de Kochko, A., Beachy, R.N., and Fauquet, C.M. (1998). Expression and inheritance of multiple transgenes in rice plants, Nature Biotechnol16: 1060–1064.CrossRef
    18. Cheng, M., Fry, J.E., Pang, S., Zhou, H., Hironaka, C.M., Duncan, D.R., Conner, T.W., and Wan, Y. (1997) Genetic transformation of wheat mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciensPlant Physiology 115, 97180.
    19. Christensen, A.H. and Quail, P.H. (1996) Ubiquitin promoter-based vectors for high-level expression of selectable and/or screenable marker genes in monocotyledenous plants, Transgen. Res5, 213–218.CrossRef
    20. Christou, P. (1997) Rice transformation: bombardment. Plant Mol. Biol35, 197–203.PubMedCrossRef
    21. Clapham, D.H. and Ekerg, I. (1986) Induction of tumours by various strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens on Abies nordmanniana and Picea abiesScand. J. For. Res1, 435–437.CrossRef
    22. Clapham, D., Ekberg, I., Eriksson, G., Hood, E.E., and Norell, L. (1990) Within-population variation in susceptibility to Agrobacterium tumefaciens A281 in Picea abies (L.) Karst., Theor. Appl. Genet79, 654–656.CrossRef
    23. Clapham, D., Manders, G., Yibrah, H.S., and von Arnold, S. (1995) Enhancement of short-and medium-term expression of transgenes in embryogenic suspensions of Picea abies (L.) Karst., J. Exp. Bot46, 655–662.CrossRef
    24. Clapham, D., Demel, P., Elfstrand, M., Koop, H.-U., Sabala, I. and von Arnold, S. (1999) Gene transfer by particle bombardment to embryogenic cultures of Picea abies and the production of transgenic plantlets (submitted).
    25. Dawkins, M.D. and Owens, J.N. (1993) In vitro and in vivo pollen hydration, germination, and pollen-tube growth in white spruce, Picea glauca (Moench) Voss, Int. J. Plant Sci154, 506–521.
    26. De Block, M., Debrouwer, D., and Moens, T. (1997) The development of a nuclear male sterility system in wheat. Expression of the barnase gene under the control of tapetum specific promoters, Theor. Appl. Genet95, 125–131.CrossRef
    27. Dong, J.-Z., Pilate, G., Abrams, S.R., and Dunstan, D. I. (1994) Induction of a wheat Em promoter by ABA and optically pure ABA analogs in white spruce (Picea glauca) protoplasts, Physiol. Plant90, 513–521.CrossRef
    28. Drake, P.M.W., John, A., Power, J.B., and Davey, M.R. (1997) Expression of the gus A gene in embryogenic cell lines of Sitka spruce following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, J. Exp. Bot48, 151–155.CrossRef
    29. Duchesne, L.C. and Charest, P.J. (1991) Transient expression of the b-glucuronidase gene in embryogenic callus of Picea mariana following microprojection. Plant Cell Rep10, 191–194.CrossRef
    30. Duchesne, L.C. and Charest, P.J. (1992) Effect of promoter sequence on transient expression of the bglucuronidase gene in embryogenic calli of Larix x eurolepsis and Picea mariana following microprojection, Can. J. Bot70, 175–180.CrossRef
    31. Egertsdotter, U. and von Arnold, S. (1993) Classification of embryogenic cell-lines of Picea abies as regards protoplast isolation and culture, J. Plant Physiol141, 222–229.CrossRef
    32. Ellis, D.D., (1995) Transformation of gymnosperms, in S.M. Jain, P.K. Gupta, and R.J. Newton (eds.), Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants, Vol. I, Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp. 227–251.
    33. Ellis, D., Roberts, D., Sutton, B., Lazaroff, W., Webb, D., and Flinn, B. (1989) Transformation of white spruce and other conifer species by Agrobacterium tumefaciensPlant Cell Rep8, 16–20.CrossRef
    34. Ellis, D. D., McCabe, D., Russell, D., Martinell, B., and McCown, B.H. (1991) Expression of inducible angiosperm promoters in a gymnosperm, Picea glauca (white spruce), Plant Mol. Biol17, 19–27.PubMedCrossRef
    35. Ellis, D. D., McCabe, D.E., McInnis, S., Ramachandran, R., Russell, D.R., Wallace, K.M., Martinell, B.J., Roberts, D.R., Raffa, K.F., and McCown, B.H. (1993) Stable transformation of Picea glauca by particle acceleration, Bio/l’echnol11, 84–89.CrossRef
    36. Ellis, D.D., Rintamaki-Strait, J., Francis, K., Kleiner, K., Raffa, K., and McCown, B. (1996) Transgene expression in spruce and poplar: from the lab to the field, in M.R. Ahuja (ed.), Somatic Cell Genetics and Molecular Genetics of Trees, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 159–163.CrossRef
    37. Finer, J.J., Vain, P., Jones, M.W., and McMullen, M.D. (1992) Development of the particle inflow gun for DNA delivery to plant cells, Plant Cell Rep11, 323–328.CrossRef
    38. Finnegan, J. and McElroy, D. (1994) Transgene inactivation: plants fight back!, Bio/Technol12, 883–888.CrossRef
    39. Gould, J., Devey, M., Hasegawa, O., Ulian, E.C., Peterson G., and Smith, R.H. (1991) Transformation of Zea maysL., using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the shoot apex, Plant Physiol95, 426–434.PubMedCrossRef
    40. Häggman, H.M., and Aronen, T.S. (1996). Agrobacterium mediated diseases and genetic transformation in forest trees, in S.P. Raychaudhuri and K. Maramorosch (eds.), Forest Trees and Palms, Oxford IBH Publishing Co. PVT. Ltd., New Delhi and Calcutta, pp. 135–179.
    41. Häggman, H.M., Aronen, T.S., and Nikkanen, T.O. 1997. Gene transfer by particle bombardment to Norway spruce and Scots pine pollen, Can. J.For. Res27, 928–935.CrossRef
    42. Hakman, I. and von Arnold, S. (1985) Plantlet regeneration through somatic embryogenesis in Picea abies (Norway spruce), J. Plant Physiol121, 149–158.CrossRef
    43. Harlow, W.M., Harrar, E.S., Hardin, J.W., and White, F.M. (1996) Textbook of Dendrology. McGraw Hill, Inc.
    44. Hay, I., Lachance, D., von Aderkas, P., and Charest, P.J. (1994) Transient chimeric gene expression in pollen of five conifer species following microparticle bombardment, Can. J. For. Res24, 2417–2423.CrossRef
    45. Hazel, CB, Klein, T.M., Anis, M., Wilde, H.D., and Parrott, W.A. (1998) Growth characteristics and transformability of soybean embryogenic cultures, Plant Cell Rep17, 765–772.CrossRef
    46. Högberg, K.-A., Ekberg, I., Norell, L., and von Arnold, S. (1998) Integration of somatic embryogenesis in a tree breeding programme - a case study with Picea abiesCan. J. For. Res. (accepted)
    47. Hood, E.E., Clapham, D.H., Ekberg, I., and Johannson, T. (1990) T-DNA presence and opine production in tumors of Picea abies (L.) Karst induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens A281, Plant Mol. Biol14, 111–117.PubMedCrossRef
    48. Hood, E.E., Gelvin, S.B., Melchers, L.S., and Hoekema, A. (1993) New Agrobacterium helper plasmids for gene transfer to plants, Transgen. Res2. 208–218.CrossRef
    49. Huang, Y., Diner. A.M., and Karnosky, D.F. (1991) Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated genetic transformation and regeneration of a conifer: Larix deciduaIn Vitro Cell Dev. Biol27P, 201–207.
    50. Jain, S.M. (1993) Recent advances in plant genetic-engineering, Current Sci64, 715–727.
    51. Jain, S.M., Oker-Blom, O., Pehu, E.P., and Newton, R.J. (1992) Genetic engineering: an additional tool for
    52. plant improvement. Acta Agric. Scand., SecBSoil & Plant Sci42, 133–139.
    53. Jouanin, L., Brasileiro, A. C. M., Leple, J. C., Pilate, G., and Cornu, D. (1993) Genetic transformation: A short review of methods and their applications, results and perspectives for forest trees, Ann. Sci. For50, 325–336.CrossRef
    54. Klein, T.M., Wolf, E.D., Wu, R., Sanford, J.C. (1987). High-velocity microprojectiles for delivering nucleic acids into living cells, Nature 327, 70–73.CrossRef
    55. Li, Y., Trembly, F.M., and Séguin, A. (1994) Transient transformation of pollen and embryogenic tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss) resulting from microprojectile bombardment, Plant Cell Rep13, 661–665.CrossRef
    56. Lindroth, A.M., Grönroos, R., Clapham, D., Svensson, J., and von Arnold, S. (1998) Ubiquitous and tissue specific gus expression in transgenic roots conferred by six different promoters in one coniferous and three angiosperm species, Plant Cell Rep., accepted.
    57. Maessen, G.D.F. (1997) Genomic stability and stability of expression in genetically modified plants, Acta Bot. Neerl46, 3–24.
    58. Magnussen, D., Clapham, D., Grönroos, R., and von Arnold, S. (1994). Induction of hairy and normal roots on Picea abiesPinus sylvestris and Pinus contorta by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Scand. J. For. Res. 9, 46–51.
    59. Mariani, C., De Beuckeleer, M., Truettner, J., Leemans, J., and Goldberg, R.B. (1990) Induction of male sterility in plants by a chimaeric ribonuclease gene, Nature 347, 737–741.CrossRef
    60. Martinussen, I., Junttila, O., and Twell, D. (1994) Optimization of transient expression in pollen of Norway spruce (Picea abies) by particle acceleration, Physiol. Plant92, 412–416.CrossRef
    61. Martinussen, I., Bate, N., Weterings, K., Junttila O., and Twell, D. (1995) Analysis of gene regulation in growing pollen tubes of angiosperm and gymnosperm species using microprojectile bombardment, Physiol. Plant93, 445–450.CrossRef
    62. May, G.D., Afza, R., Mason, H. S., Wiecko, A., Novak, F. J., and Arntzen, C. J. (1995) Generation of transgenic banana (Musa acuminata) plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, Bio/Technol13, 486–492.CrossRef
    63. Neale, D.B. and Sederoff, R.R. (1988) Inheritance and evolution of conifer organelle genomes, in J.W. Hanover and D.E. Keathley (eds.), Genetic Manipulation of Woody Plants, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 251–264.CrossRef
    64. Newton, R.J., Yibrah, H.S., Dong, N., Clapham, D.H., and von Arnold, S. (1992) Expression of an abscisic acid responsive promoter in Picea abies (L.) Karst. following bombardment from an electric discharge particle accelerator, Plant Cell Rep11, 188–191.CrossRef
    65. Potrykus, I. (1991) Gene transfer to plants: Assessment of published approaches and results, Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol42, 205–225.CrossRef
    66. Robertson, D., Weissinger, A. K., Ackley, R., Glover, S., and Sederoff, R. R. (1992) Genetic transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) using somatic embryo explants by microprojectile bombardment, Plant Mol. Biol19, 925–935.PubMedCrossRef
    67. Russell, J.A., Roy, M.K. and Sanford, J.C. (1992) Major improvements in biolistic transformation of suspension-cultured tobacco cells, ln Vitro Cell.Dev.Biol28P, 97–105.CrossRef
    68. Sederoff, R.R. and McCord, S. (1997). NCSU forest biotechnology group. Dendrome 4, 1–3.
    69. Spano, L., Pomponi, M., Costantino, P., van Slogteren, G.M.S., and Tempé, J. (1982) Identification of TDNA in the root-inducing plasmid of the agropine type Agrobacterium rhizogenes 1855, Plant Mol. Biol1, 291–300.CrossRef
    70. Stiller, J., Martirani, L., Tuppale, S., Chian, R.-J., Chiurazzi, M., and Gresshoff, P.M. (1997) High requency transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants in the model legume Lotus japonicusJ. Exp. Bot48, 1357–1365.CrossRef
    71. Strauss, S.H., Rottmann, W.H., Brunner, A.M., and Sheppard, L.A. (1995) Genetic engineering of reproductive sterility in forest trees, Mol. Breeding 1, 5–26.CrossRef
    72. Tautorus, T.E., Bekkaoui, F., Pilon, M., Datla, R.S.S., Crosby, W.L., Fowke, L.C., and Dunstan, D.I. (1989) Factors affecting transient gene expression in electroporated black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)protoplasts, Theor. Appl. Genet78, 531–536.CrossRef
    73. Tautorus, T.E., Attree, S.M., Fowke, L.C. and Dunstan, D.I. (1990) Somatic embryogenesis from immature and mature zygotic embryos, and embryo regeneration from protoplasts in black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.), Plant Sci67, 115–124.CrossRef
    74. Tautorus, T.E., Fowke, L.C., and Dunstan, D.I. (1991) Somatic embryogenesis in conifers, Can. J. Bot69, 1873–1899.CrossRef
    75. Thompson, D. A. (1992) Growth of Sitka spruce and timber quality, in D.A. Rook (ed.), Super Sitka fdr the 90s, Forestry Commission Bulletin 103, London: HMSO, pp. 54–60.
    76. Tian, L., Séguin, A., and Charest, P.J. (1997) Expression of the green fluorescent protein gene in conifer tissues, Plant Cell Rep16, 267–271.
    77. Touraev, A., Stöger, E., Voronin, V., and Heberle-Bors, E. (1997) Plant male germ line transformation, Plant J12, 949–956.CrossRef
    78. Walter, C, Donaldson, S., Hinton, H., Moody, J., Walden, A., Walter, E., Mellerowicz, E., Grace, L. Keith, A., Narayan, R., Wang, D., Wagner, A. (1997). Genetic engineering as a new tool in commercial forestry: transfer and expression of foreign genes in Pinus species, Tappi 1997 Biological Sciences Symp, 497–503, Tappi Press, Atlanta, GA.
    79. Wenck, A.R., Quinn, M., Whetten, R.W., Pullman, G., and Sederoff, R. (1998) High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda),Plant Mol. Biol. (in press)
    80. Wilson, S. M., Thorpe, T. A., and Moloney, M. M. (1989) PEG-mediated expression of GUS and CAT genes in protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea glauca. Plant Cell Rep7, 704707.
    81. Yibrah, H. S., Manders, G., Clapham, D.H., and von Arnold, S. (1994) Biological factors affecting transient transformation in embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea abiesJ. Plant Physiol144, 472478.
    82. Zupan, J., and Zambryski, P. (1997). The Agrobacterium DNA transfer complex, Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 16, 279–295.

    For further details log on website :

    No comments:

    Post a Comment