Tuesday, 15 November 2016

Transformation of Picea Species

Published Date
Volume 66 of the series Forestry Sciences pp 105-118

  • Author

  • D. H. Clapham
  • R. J. Newton
  • S. Sen
  • S. von Arnold

  • Abstract

    The genus Picea includes about 40 species of trees which are largely restricted to the cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere, many of them in China. The wood of Piceaspecies is strong for its weight, moderately long fibered but slightly resinous, and of primary importance in the manufacture of pulp and paper and for sawnwood (timber). P. abies (Norway spruce), is, together with Pinus sylvestris, the most important European economic forest tree species, used for pulp and timber. It is native from the Pyrenees to Russia and from Lapland to the Balkans; in Russia it merges into P. obovata. It is extensively planted in N. Europe. In North America, the important economic species of Picea are P. glauca, (white spruce), which grows across Canada and northern USA, widely used for pulp and timber; P. mariana (black spruce) with a similar distribution but growing best on wet sites; P engelmanii, which grows in the western mountains from British Colombia, where it hybridizes with P. glauca, to New Mexico, used for timber; P. sitchensis (Sitka spruce), a coastal species from Alaska to California and also grown extensively in Britain and Denmark, used for pulp and timber; and P. rubens (red spruce), closely related to P. mariana but with a narrow Eastern distribution from Nova Scotia to Georgia. Several Picea species are used as park and garden trees and P. abies is a popular Christmas tree in Scandinavia and elsewhere; (see further Anon 1986, Harlow et al. 1996, Attree et al. 1991, Thompson 1992).


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