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Thursday, 15 September 2016

Incidence of Bark- and Wood-Boring Insects in Firewood: A Survey at Michigan's Mackinac Bridge

Published Date
Vol. 103: Issue. 5: Pages. 1682-1692
(Issue publication date: October 2010)
DOI: 10.1603/EC10041

Robert A. Haack1,2, Toby R. Petrice1 and Alex C. Wiedenhoeft3
2 Corresponding author, e-mail: .
1 USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 1407 S. Harrison Rd., E. Lansing, MI 48823.
3 USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, One Gifford Pinchot Dr., Madison, WI 52726.


Firewood is a major pathway for the inadvertent movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. After discovery of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in southeastern Michigan in 2002, quarantines were enacted including prohibition of transporting firewood across the Mackinac Bridge between Michigan's Lower and Upper peninsulas. Drivers are required to surrender firewood before crossing the bridge. We surveyed recently surrendered firewood in April, July, and September 2008 and categorized it by genus, cross-sectional shape (whole, half, or quarter), approximate age (years since it was a live tree), presence of bark, and evidence of bark- and wood-boring insects. The 1,045 pieces of firewood examined represented 21 tree genera: primarily Acer (30%), Quercus(18%), Fraxinus (15%), Ulmus (12%), Betula (5%), and Prunus (5%). Live borers (Bostrichoidea, Brentidae, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Cossidae, Curculionidae [Scolytinae and non-Scolytinae],and Siricidae) were found in 23% of the pieces and another 41% had evidence of previous borer infestation. Of the 152 Fraxinusfirewood pieces, 13% had evidence of past A. planipennis infestation, but we found no live A. planipennis. We discuss national “don't move firewood” campaigns and U.S. imports of fuelwood. During 1996–2009, the United States imported fuelwood valued at >$US98 million from 34 countries.

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